10 Nov Characteristics of the Protocols Used in Electrical Pulse Stimulation of Cultured Cells for Mimicking In Vivo Exercise: A Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis, and Meta-Regression
Nintou E, Karligiotou E, Vliora M, Ioannou LG, Flouris AD. Characteristics of the Protocols Used in Electrical Pulse Stimulation of Cultured Cells for Mimicking In Vivo Exercise: A Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis, and Meta-Regression. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2022; 23(21):13446. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232113446
While exercise benefits a wide spectrum of diseases and affects most tissues and organs, many aspects of its underlying mechanistic effects remain unsolved. In vitro exercise, mimicking neuronal signals leading to muscle contraction in vitro, can be a valuable tool to address this issue. Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines for this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched EMBASE and PubMed (from database inception to 4 February 2022) for relevant studies assessing in vitro exercise using electrical pulse stimulation to mimic exercise. Meta-analyses of mean differences and meta-regression analyses were conducted. Of 985 reports identified, 41 were eligible for analysis. We observed variability among existing protocols of in vitro exercise and heterogeneity among protocols of the same type of exercise. Our analyses showed that AMPK, Akt, IL-6, and PGC1a levels and glucose uptake increased in stimulated compared to non-stimulated cells, following the patterns of in vivo exercise, and that these effects correlated with the duration of stimulation. We conclude that in vitro exercise follows motifs of exercise in humans, allowing biological parameters, such as the aforementioned, to be valuable tools in defining the types of in vitro exercise. It might be useful in transferring obtained knowledge to human research.
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