12 May Effects of Exercise and Physical Activity Levels on Vaccination Efficacy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Dinas PC, Koutedakis Y, Ioannou LG, Metsios G, Kitas GD. Effects of Exercise and Physical Activity Levels on Vaccination Efficacy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Vaccines (Basel). 2022 May 12;10(5):769. doi: 10.3390/vaccines10050769. PMID: 35632525; PMCID: PMC9146578.
Objective: We examined whether different intensities of exercise and/or physical activity (PA) levels affected and/or associated with vaccination efficacy.
Methods:A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted and registered with PROSPERO (CRD42021230108). The PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library (trials), SportDiscus, and CINAHL databases were searched up to January 2022.
Results: In total, 38 eligible studies were included. Chronic exercise increased influenza antibodies (standardized mean difference (SMD) = 0.49, confidence interval (CI) = 0.25-0.73, Z = 3.95, I2 = 90%, p < 0.01), which was mainly driven by aerobic exercise (SMD = 0.39, CI = 0.19-0.58, Z = 3.96, I2 = 77%, p < 0.01) as opposed to combined (aerobic + resistance; p = 0.07) or other exercise types (i.e., taiji and qigong, unspecified; p > 0.05). PA levels positively affected antibodies in response to influenza vaccination (SMD = 0.18, CI = 0.02-0.34, Z = 2.21, I2 = 76%, p = 0.03), which was mainly driven by high PA levels compared to moderate PA levels (Chi2 = 10.35, I2 = 90.3%, p < 0.01). Physically active individuals developed influenza antibodies in response to vaccination in >4 weeks (SMD = 0.64, CI = 0.30-0.98, Z = 3.72, I2 = 83%, p < 0.01) as opposed to <4 weeks (p > 0.05; Chi2 = 13.40, I2 = 92.5%, p < 0.01) post vaccination.
Conclusion: Chronic aerobic exercise or high PA levels increased influenza antibodies in humans more than vaccinated individuals with no participation in exercise/PA. The evidence regarding the effects of exercise/PA levels on antibodies in response to vaccines other than influenza is extremely limited.
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