Δημοσιεύσεις

Population Characteristics, Symptoms, and Risk Factors of Idiopathic Chilblains: A Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis, and Meta-Regression

Kapnia AK, Ziaka S, Ioannou LG, Flouri I, Dinas PC, Flouris AD. Population Characteristics, Symptoms, and Risk Factors of Idiopathic Chilblains: A Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis, and Meta-Regression. Biology. 2022; 11(11):1651. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11111651

Abstract:

Background: Chilblains/perniosis is a non-freezing cold injury causing painful inflammatory skin lesions. Its pathogenesis remains poorly understood because it is often studied as secondary to other underlying conditions.

Methods: We systematically investigated the population characteristics, symptoms, and predisposing factors of chilblains in healthy adults exposed to cool/cold environments. We screened PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library, and we adopted PRISMA reporting guidelines (PROSPERO: CRD42021245307). The risk of bias was assessed by two independent reviewers (RTI item bank). Random-effects model meta-analyses were performed to calculate the pooled prevalence of histopathological features. Mixed-effects meta-regressions were used to assess other sources of between-study heterogeneity.

Results: Thirteen studies (477 patients) were included. Chilblains affect more women than men, up to 12% of the body skin surface, and most frequently, the hands and fingers. Meta-analyses of nine studies (303 patients) showed a frequent presence of perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate (81%), basal epidermal-cell layer vacuolation (67%), papillary dermal edema (66%), and perieccrine lymphocytic infiltrate (57%). Meta-regressions (p ≤ 0.05) showed that smoking and frequent occupational exposure to water increase the likelihood of histopathological features.

Conclusions: The population characteristics, symptoms, and predisposing factors of chilblains revealed in this analysis should be incorporated in medical care to improve the condition’s diagnosis and management.

Full Text Link:

https://www.mdpi.com/2079-7737/11/11/1651

 

 

Climate change as a threat to health and well-being in Europe: focus on heat and infectious diseases

Climate change as a threat to health and well being in EuropeEuropean Environment Agency Report No 07/2022

Climate change as a threat to health and well-being in Europe: focus on heat and infectious diseases

Climate change poses multiple threats to human health and well-being in Europe. Extreme weather events, such
as devastating floods, extensive wildfires or intense and long-lasting heatwaves, that are more likely and more severe
due to the changing climate have become part of our reality in recent years. The greatest direct climate-related threat to human health in Europe is heat, and the large number of excess deaths attributable to extremely high temperatures and prolonged
heatwaves during the summer of 2022 is a case in point.

Full Text Link:

https://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/climate-change-impacts-on-health?fbclid=IwAR0j44AlRJcGEqWeHjJqqu-vp1gUB2cuRQbBwB-dd6MUy21a_I0v5U6oHPQ

 

 

Characteristics of the Protocols Used in Electrical Pulse Stimulation of Cultured Cells for Mimicking In Vivo Exercise: A Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis, and Meta-Regression

Characteristics of the Protocols Used in Electrical Pulse Stimulation of Cultured Cells for Mimicking In Vivo Exercise A Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis, and Meta-RegressionNintou E, Karligiotou E, Vliora M, Ioannou LG, Flouris AD. Characteristics of the Protocols Used in Electrical Pulse Stimulation of Cultured Cells for Mimicking In Vivo Exercise: A Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis, and Meta-Regression. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2022; 23(21):13446. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232113446

Abstract:

While exercise benefits a wide spectrum of diseases and affects most tissues and organs, many aspects of its underlying mechanistic effects remain unsolved. In vitro exercise, mimicking neuronal signals leading to muscle contraction in vitro, can be a valuable tool to address this issue. Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines for this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched EMBASE and PubMed (from database inception to 4 February 2022) for relevant studies assessing in vitro exercise using electrical pulse stimulation to mimic exercise. Meta-analyses of mean differences and meta-regression analyses were conducted. Of 985 reports identified, 41 were eligible for analysis. We observed variability among existing protocols of in vitro exercise and heterogeneity among protocols of the same type of exercise. Our analyses showed that AMPK, Akt, IL-6, and PGC1a levels and glucose uptake increased in stimulated compared to non-stimulated cells, following the patterns of in vivo exercise, and that these effects correlated with the duration of stimulation. We conclude that in vitro exercise follows motifs of exercise in humans, allowing biological parameters, such as the aforementioned, to be valuable tools in defining the types of in vitro exercise. It might be useful in transferring obtained knowledge to human research.

Full Text Link:

https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/23/21/13446

 

 

Quantifying the impact of heat on human physical work capacity; part IV: interactions between work duration and heat stress severity

Quantifying the impact of heat on human physical work capacity; part IV: interactions between work duration and heat stress severitySmallcombe JW, Foster J, Hodder SG, Jay O, Flouris AD, Havenith G. Quantifying the impact of heat on human physical work capacity; part IV: interactions between work duration and heat stress severity. Int J Biometeorol. 2022 Oct 5. doi: 10.1007/s00484-022-02370-7. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 36197554.

Abstract:

High workplace temperatures negatively impact physical work capacity (PWC). Although PWC loss models with heat based on 1-h exposures are available, it is unclear if further adjustments are required to accommodate repeated work/rest cycles over the course of a full work shift. Therefore, we examined the impact of heat stress exposure on human PWC during a simulated work shift consisting of six 1-h work-rest cycles.

Nine healthy males completed six 50-min work bouts, separated by 10-min rest intervals and an extended lunch break, on four separate occasions: once in a cool environment (15 °C/50% RH) and in three different air temperature and relative humidity combinations (moderate, 35 °C/50% RH; hot, 40 °C/50% RH; and very hot, 40 °C/70%). To mimic moderate to heavy workload, work was performed on a treadmill at a fixed heart rate of 130 beats·min-1. During each work bout, PWC was quantified as the kilojoules expended above resting levels.

Over the shift, work output per cycle decreased, even in the cool climate, with the biggest decrement after the lunch break and meal consumption. Expressing PWC relative to that achieved in the cool environment for the same work duration, there was an additional 5(± 4)%, 7(± 6)%, and 16(± 7)% decrease in PWC when work was performed across a full work shift for the moderate, hot, and very hot condition respectively, compared with 1-h projections. Empirical models to predict PWC based on the level of heat stress (Wet-Bulb Globe Temperature, Universal Thermal Climate Index, Psychrometric Wet-Bulb Temperature, Humidex, and Heat Index) and the number of work cycles performed are presented.

Full Text Link:

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00484-022-02370-7

 

 

Working in a warming world: Translating thermal physiology to policy-relevant information

Andreas D. FlourisWorking in a warming world: Translating thermal physiology to policy-relevant information, Leonidas G. Ioannou & Lars Nybo (2022) Working in a warming world: Translating thermal physiology to policy-relevant information, Temperature, 9:3, 223-226, DOI: 10.1080/23328940.2022.2086414

Abstract:

Temperature and the affiliated scientific community are a leading forum for discussion and dissemination of scientific evidence relevant to the societal challenges of global warming. In an Editorial published at the onset of the HEAT-SHIELD project, which is an inter-sectoral research project funded by the European Commission, we advocated for thermal physiologists to lead the research required to fill knowledge gaps on the issue of occupational heat stress [1].

We vowed to collaborate with researchers all over the world and exchange knowledge on how to integrate scientific evidence into effective, sustainable, and feasible actions that may be adopted by workers, employers, and policy makers. Five years later, we are delighted to see that the scientific community has responded to this call for action and collaboration, and that the occupational heat stress literature has been rapidly growing within Temperature and beyond

Full Text Link:

https://doi.org/10.1080/23328940.2022.2086414

 

 

Indicators to assess physiological heat strain – Part 1: Systematic review

Indicators to assess physiological heat strain – Part 1 Systematic reviewIoannou L.G., Mantzios K., Tsoutsoubi L., Notley S.R., Dinas P.C., Brearley M., Epstein Y., Havenith G., Sawka M.N., Bröde P., Mekjavic I.B., Kenny G.P., Bernard T.E., Nybo L. & Flouris A.D. (2022) Indicators to assess physiological heat strain – Part 1: Systematic review, Temperature, DOI: 10.1080/23328940.2022.2037376.

Abstract:

In a series of three companion papers published in this Journal, we identify and validate the available thermal stress indicators (TSIs). In this first paper of the series, we conducted a systematic review (registration: INPLASY202090088) to identify all TSIs and provide reliable information regarding their use (funded by EU Horizon 2020; HEAT-SHIELD).

Eight databases (PubMed, Agricultural and Environmental Science Collection, Web of Science, Scopus, Embase, Russian Science Citation Index, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar) were searched from database inception to 15 April 2020. No restrictions on language or study design were applied. Of the 879 publications identified, 232 records were considered for further analysis. This search identified 340 instruments and indicators developed between 200 BC and 2019 AD. Of these, 153 are nomograms, instruments, and/or require detailed non-meteorological information, while 187 can be mathematically calculated utilizing only meteorological data. Of these meteorology-based TSIs, 127 were developed for people who are physically active, and 61 of those are eligible for use in occupational settings.

Information regarding the equation, operating range, interpretation categories, required input data, as well as a free software to calculate all 187 meteorology-based TSIs is provided. The information presented in this systematic review should be adopted by those interested in performing on-site monitoring and/or big data analytics for climate services to ensure appropriate use of the meteorology-based TSIs. Studies two and three in this series of companion papers present guidance on the application and validation of these TSIs, to guide end users of these indicators for more effective use.

Full Text Link:
https://doi.org/10.1080/23328940.2022.2037376

 

 

Indicators to assess physiological heat strain – Part 2: delphi exercise

Indicators to assess physiological heat strain – Part 2 Delphi exercise - FAME LabIoannou LG, Dinas PC, Notley SR, Gofa F, Gourzoulidis GA, Brearley M, Epstein Y, Havenith G, Sawka MN, Bröde P, Mekjavic IB, Kenny GP, Bernard TE, Nybo L, and Flouris AD. Indicators to assess physiological heat strain – part 2: delphi exercise. Temperature 2022. https://doi.org/10.1080/23328940.2022.2044738.

Abstract:

In a series of three companion papers published in this Journal, we identify and validate the available thermal stress indicators (TSIs). In this second paper of the series, we identified the criteria to consider when adopting a TSI to protect individuals who work in the heat, and we weighed their relative importance using a Delphi exercise with 20 experts.

Two Delphi iterations were adequate to reach consensus within the expert panel (Cronbach’s α = 0.86) for a set of 17 criteria with varying weights that should be considered when adopting a TSI to protect individuals who work in the heat. These criteria considered physiological parameters such as core/skin/mean body temperature, heart rate, and hydration status, as well as practicality, cost effectiveness, and health guidance issues. The 17 criteria were distributed across three occupational health-and-safety pillars: (i) contribution to improving occupational health (55% of total importance), (ii) mitigation of worker physiological strain (35.5% of total importance), and (iii) cost-effectiveness (9.5% of total importance).

Three criteria [(i) relationship of a TSI with core temperature, (ii) having categories indicating the level of heat stress experienced by workers, and (iii) using its heat stress categories to provide recommendations for occupational safety and health] were considered significantly more important when selecting a TSI for protecting individuals who work in the heat, accumulating 37.2 percentage points. These 17 criteria allow the validation and comparison of TSIs that presently exist as well as those that may be developed in the coming years.

Full Text Link:

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/23328940.2022.2044738

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https://www.famelab.gr/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Indicators-to-assess-physiological-heat-strain-–-Part-2-Delphi-exercise_2022.pdf 

 

 

Indicators to assess physiological heat strain – Part 3: multi-country field evaluation and consensus recommendations

Indicators to assess physiological heat strain – Part 3 Multi-country field evaluation and consensus recommendations - FAME LabIoannou LG, Tsoutsoubi L, Mantzios K, Vliora M, Nintou E, Piil JF, Notley SR, Dinas PC, Gourzoulidis GA, Havenith G, Brearley M, Mekjavic IB, Kenny GP, Nybo L, and Flouris AD. Indicators to assess physiological heat strain – Part 3: Multi-country field evaluation and consensus recommendations. Temperature 2022. https://doi.org/10.1080/23328940.2022.2044739.

Abstract:

In a series of three companion papers published in this Journal, we identify and validate the available thermal stress indicators (TSIs). In this third paper, we conducted field experiments across nine countries to evaluate the efficacy of 61 meteorology-based TSIs for assessing the physiological strain experienced by individuals working in the heat.

We monitored 372 experi-enced and acclimatized workers during 893 full work shifts. We continuously assessed core body temperature, mean skin temperature, and heart rate data together with pre/post urine specific gravity and color. The TSIs were evaluated against 17 published criteria covering physiological parameters, practicality, cost effectiveness, and health guidance issues. Simple meteorological parameters explained only a fraction of the variance in physiological heat strain (R2 = 0.016 to 0.427; p < 0.001), reflecting the importance of adopting more sophisticated TSIs. Nearly all TSIs correlated with mean skin temperature (98%), mean body temperature (97%), and heart rate (92%), while 66% of TSIs correlated with the magnitude of dehydration and 59% correlated with core body temperature (r = 0.031 to 0.602; p < 0.05).

When evaluated against the 17 published criteria, the TSIs scored from 4.7 to 55.4% (max score = 100%). The indoor (55.4%) and outdoor (55.1%) Wet-Bulb Globe Temperature and the Universal Thermal Climate Index (51.7%) scored higher compared to other TSIs (4.7 to 42.0%). Therefore, these three TSIs have the highest potential to assess the physiological strain experienced by individuals working in the heat.

Full Text Link:

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/23328940.2022.2044739

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https://www.famelab.gr/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Indicators-to-assess-physiological-heat-strain-–-Part-3-Multi-country-field-evaluation-and-consensus-recommendations_2022.pdf

 

 

Implication of Irisin in Different Types of Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Vliora M.Implication of Irisin in Different Types of Cancer A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis, Nintou E., Karligiotou E., Ioannou L.G., Grillo E., Mitola S., Flouris A.D. Implication of Irisin in Different Types of Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 202223, 9971. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23179971

Abstract:

Cancer is a set of diseases characterized by several hallmark properties, such as increased angiogenesis, proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. The increased angiogenic activity constantly supplies the tumors with nutrients and a plethora of cytokines to ensure cell survival. Along these cytokines is a newly discovered protein, called irisin, which is released into the circulation after physical exercise. Irisin is the product of fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) proteolytic cleavage. Recently it has been the topic of investigation in several types of cancer. In this study, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate its implication in different types of cancer.

Our results suggest that irisin expression is decreased in cancer patients, thus it can be used as a valid biomarker for the diagnosis of several types of cancer. In addition, our results indicate that irisin may have an important role in tumor progression and metastasis since it is involved in multiple signaling pathways that promote cell proliferation and migration.

Full Text Link:

https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23179971

 

 

The impact of adipokines on vascular networks in adipose tissue

Vliora MThe impact of adipokines on vascular networks in adipose tissue, Ravelli C, Grillo E, Corsini M, Flouris AD, Mitola S. The impact of adipokines on vascular networks in adipose tissue. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2022 Jul 23:S1359-6101(22)00057-0. doi: 10.1016/j.cytogfr.2022.07.008. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35953434.

Abstract:

Adipose tissue (AT) is a highly active and plastic endocrine organ. It secretes numerous soluble molecules known as adipokines, which act locally to AT control the remodel and homeostasis or exert pleiotropic functions in different peripheral organs. Aberrant production or loss of certain adipokines contributes to AT dysfunction associated with metabolic disorders, including obesity.

The AT plasticity is strictly related to tissue vascularization. Angiogenesis supports the AT expansion, while regression of blood vessels is associated with AT hypoxia, which in turn mediates tissue inflammation, fibrosis and metabolic dysfunction. Several adipokines can regulate endothelial cell functions and are endowed with either pro- or anti-angiogenic properties. Here we address the role of adipokines in the regulation of angiogenesis. A better understanding of the link between adipokines and angiogenesis will open the way for novel therapeutic approaches to treat obesity and metabolic diseases.

Full Text Link:

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cytogfr.2022.07.008

 

 

Cardiovascular Stress and Characteristics of Cold-Induced Vasodilation in Women and Men during Cold-Water Immersion: A Randomized Control Study

 

 

Prevalence of uncoupling protein one genetic polymorphisms and their relationship with cardiovascular and metabolic health

Prevalence of uncoupling protein one genetic polymorphisms and their relationship with cardiovascular and metabolic healthDinas PC, Nintou E, Vliora M, Pravednikova AE, Sakellariou P, Witkowicz A, Kachaev ZM, Kerchev VV, Larina SN, Cotton J, Kowalska A, Gkiata P, Bargiota A, Khachatryan ZA, Hovhannisyan AA, Antonosyan MA, Margaryan S, Partyka A, Bogdanski P, Szulinska M, Kregielska-Narozna M, Czepczyński R, Ruchała M, Tomkiewicz A, Yepiskoposyan L, Karabon L, Shidlovskii Y, Metsios GS, Flouris AD. Prevalence of uncoupling protein one genetic polymorphisms and their relationship with cardiovascular and metabolic health. PLoS One. 2022 Apr 28;17(4):e0266386. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0266386. PMID: 35482655; PMCID: PMC9049362.

Abstract:

Contribution of UCP1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to susceptibility for cardiometabolic pathologies (CMP) and their involvement in specific risk factors for these conditions varies across populations. We tested whether UCP1 SNPs A-3826G, A-1766G, Ala64Thr and A-112C are associated with common CMP and their risk factors across Armenia, Greece, Poland, Russia and United Kingdom. This case-control study included genotyping of these SNPs, from 2,283 Caucasians.

Results were extended via systematic review and meta-analysis. In Armenia, GA genotype and A allele of Ala64Thr displayed ~2-fold higher risk for CMP compared to GG genotype and G allele, respectively (p<0.05). In Greece, A allele of Ala64Thr decreased risk of CMP by 39%. Healthy individuals with A-3826G GG genotype and carriers of mutant allele of A-112C and Ala64Thr had higher body mass index compared to those carrying other alleles. In healthy Polish, higher waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) was observed in heterozygotes A-3826G compared to AA homozygotes. Heterozygosity of A-112C and Ala64Thr SNPs was related to lower WHR in CMP individuals compared to wild type homozygotes (p<0.05).

Meta-analysis showed no statistically significant odds-ratios across our SNPs (p>0.05). Concluding, the studied SNPs could be associated with the most common CMP and their risk factors in some populations.

Full Text Link:

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0266386

 

 

Occupational heat strain in outdoor workers: A comprehensive review and meta-analysis

Occupational heat strain in outdoor workers a comprehensive review and meta-analysis - FAME Lab Ioannou LG, Foster J, Morris NB, Piil JF, Havenith G, Mekjavic IB, Kenny GP, Nybo L, & Flouris AD(2022). Occupational heat strain in outdoor workers: A comprehensive review and meta-analysis. Temperature, DOI: 10.1080/23328940.2022.2030634

Abstract:

The present comprehensive review (i) summarizes the current knowledge on the impacts of occupational heat stress on outdoor workers, (ii) provides a historical background on this issue, (iii) presents a meta-analysis of published data, (iv) explores inter-individual and intra-individual factors, (v) discusses the available heat mitigation strategies, (vi) estimates physical work capacity, labour productivity, and metabolic rate for the year 2030, and (vii) provides an overview of existing policy and legal frameworks on occupational heat exposure.

Meta-analytic findings from 38 field studies that involved monitoring 2,409 outdoor workers across 41 jobs in 21 countries suggest that occupational heat stress increases the core (r = 0.44) and skin (r = 0.44) temperatures, as well as the heart rate (r = 0.38) and urine specific gravity (r = 0.13) of outdoor workers (all p < 0.05). Moreover, it diminishes the capacity of outdoor workers for manual labour (r = −0.82; p < 0.001) and is responsible for more than two thirds of the reduction in their metabolic rate.

Importantly, our analysis shows that physical work capacity is projected to be highly affected by the ongoing anthropogenic global warming. Nevertheless, the metabolic rate and, therefore, labour productivity are projected to remain at levels higher than the workers’ physical work capacity, indicating that people will continue to work more intensely than they should to meet their financial obligations for food and shelter. In this respect, complementary measures targeting self-pacing, hydration, work-rest regimes, ventilated garments, and mechanization can be adopted to protect outdoor workers.

Full Text Link:

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/23328940.2022.2030634

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https://www.famelab.gr/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Occupational-heat-strain-in-outdoor-workers-A-comprehensive-review-and-meta-analysis_2022.pdf

 

 

Impact of Warm-Up on Muscle Temperature and Athletic Performance

Impact of Warm-Up on Muscle Temperature and Athletic Performance - FAME Lab Kapnia AK, Dallas CN, Gerodimos V, Flouris AD. Impact of Warm-Up on Muscle Temperature and Athletic Performance. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 2022. DOI: 10.1080/02701367.2021.2007212.

Abstract:

Purpose: We performed two studies to investigate: the minute-by-minute changes in muscle temperature following a 20-min warm-up routine (Study-1) and the impact of the typical post-warm-up period of inactivity on the performance of basketball athletes (Study-2).

Method: In Study-1, 26 males (age: 23.6 ± 6.2 yr; BMI: 24.1 ± 3.1 kg/m2) performed a 20-min cycling warm-up and then rested for 20 min. Tibialis anterior muscle temperature was assessed throughout. In Study-2, six male professional basketball players (age: 24.9 ± 4.6 yr; BMI: 25.5 ± 1.8 kg/m2) performed a series of basketball performance tests after a 20-min warm-up, as well as 9-min and 23-min into a post-warm-up period of inactivity.

Results: On average, muscle temperature increased by 0.1°C every minute during warm-up and dropped by the same amount every minute during inactivity. The increase during warm-up and the decrease during inactivity were higher at the start of each period. A 9-min inactivity period is accompanied by 3.8 ± 0.6% reduction in countermovement jump (p = .046). A 23-min inactivity period is accompanied by 7.3 ± 0.7% reduction in lay-up points (p = .027). Conclusion: These two studies show that a 20-min warm-up routine increases muscle temperature but this benefit is lost after a typical post-warm-up inactivity period in high-level basketball, leading to reductions in certain aspects of athletic performance.

Full Text Link:

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02701367.2021.2007212

 

 

Irisin regulates thermogenesis and lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

Irisin regulates thermogenesis and lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes - FAME LabVliora M, Grillo E, Corsini M, Ravelli C, Nintou E, Karligiotou E, Flouris AD, Mitola S. Irisin regulates thermogenesis and lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj. 2022 Apr;1866(4):130085. doi: 10.1016/j.bbagen.2022.130085. Epub 2022 Jan 10. PMID: 35016977.

Abstract:

Background: Adipose tissue plays a pivotal role in the development and progression of the metabolic syndrome which along with its complications is an epidemic of the 21st century. Irisin is an adipo-myokine secreted mainly by skeletal muscle and targeting, among others, adipose tissue. In brown adipose tissue it upregulates uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) which is responsible for mitochondrial non-shivering thermogenesis.

Methods: Here we analyzed the effects of irisin on the metabolic activity of 3T3-L1 derived adipocytes through a mitochondrial flux assay. We also assessed the effects of irisin on the intracellular signaling through Western Blot. Finally, the gene expression of ucp1 and lipolytic genes was examined through RT-qPCR.

Results: Irisin affects mitochondrial respiration and lipolysis in a time-dependent manner through the regulation of PI3K-AKT pathway. Irisin also induces the expression of UCP1 and the regulation of NF-κB, and CREB and ERK pathways. Conclusion: Our data supports the role of irisin in the induction of non-shivering thermogenesis, the regulation of energy expenditure and lipolysis in adipocytes. General significance: Irisin may be an attractive therapeutic target in the treatment of obesity and related metabolic disorders.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35016977/

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https://www.famelab.gr/wp-content/uploads/2022/05/Irisin-regulates-thermogenesis-and-lipolysis-in-3T3-L1-adipocytes_2022_Main-text_Irisin_R1.pdf

 

Heat tolerance and the validity of occupational heat exposure limits in women during moderate-intensity work

Heat tolerance and the validity of occupational heat exposure limits in women during moderate-intensity workNotley SR, Akerman AP, Friesen BJ, Poirier MP, McCourt E, Flouris A, Kenny GP. Heat tolerance and the validity of occupational heat exposure limits in women during moderate-intensity work. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2022 Mar 8. doi: 10.1139/apnm-2022-0003. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35259026.

Abstract:

To mitigate excessive rises in core temperature (>1°C) in non heat-acclimatized workers, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) provide heat stress limits (Action Limit Values; ALV), defined by the wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) and a worker’s metabolic rate. However, since these limits are based on data from men, their suitability for women remains unclear.

We therefore assessed core temperature and heart rate in men (n=19; body surface area-to-mass ratio: 250 (SD 17) cm2/kg) and women (n=15; body surface area-to-mass ratio: 268 (SD 24) cm2/kg) aged 18-45 years during 180-min walking at a moderate metabolic rate (200 W/m2) in WBGTs below (16 and 24°C) and above (28 and 32°C) ACGIH ALV. Sex did not significantly influence (i) rises in core temperature, irrespective of WBGT, (ii) the proportion of participants with rises in core temperature >1°C in environments below ACGIH limits, and (iii) work duration before rises in core temperature exceeded 1°C or volitional termination in environments above ACGIH limits.

Although further studies are needed, these findings indicate that for the purpose of mitigating rises in core temperature exceeding recommended limits (>1°C), ACGIH guidelines have comparable effectiveness in non heat-acclimatized men and women when working at a moderate metabolic rate. Novelty points • Sex did not appreciably influence thermal strain nor the proportion of participants with core temperatures exceeding recommended limits. • Sex did not significantly influence tolerance to uncompensable heat stress • Despite originating from data obtained in only men, current occupational heat stress guidance offered comparable effectiveness in men and women.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35259026/

 

 

Occupational electromagnetic spectrum hazards and the signif-icance of artificial optical radiation: country report for Greece

Occupational electromagnetic spectrum hazards and the signif-icance of artificial optical radiation: country report for GreeceGourzoulidis GA, Karabetsos E, Bourousis C, Tyrakis C, Flouris AD, Maris TG, Topalis FV. Occupational electromagnetic spectrum hazards and the signif-icance of artificial optical radiation: country report for Greece. Med Lav 2022; 113 (2): e2022016. DOI:10.23749/mdl.v113i2.12636.

Abstract:

Background: The electromagnetic spectrum spans over an enormous range from 0 up to more than 1020 Hz in the deep ionizing region, significant exposures exist in specific occupational environments. Between the ionizing and the electromagnetic fields (EMF) part of the spectrum, the ‘optical radiation’ (OR) region has specific properties. Comparative and concise evaluation enables action prioritization.

Methods: Following the transposition and implementation periods of the artificial optical radiation (AOR) and EMF European Directives, the Hellenic Ministry of Labour in collaboration with the Greek Atomic Energy Commission (EEAE) and the National Technical University of Athens, conducted thorough occupational exposure investigation in Greece. Using dedicated measuring equipment and procedures, the majority of EMF emitting installations in Greece and also AOR emitting installations including arc welding, lasers and PC monitors has been assessed.

Results: Measurement results from occupational settings reveal that it is the non-coherent metal arc welding AOR that can pose even sub-second overexposures. Rare EMF overexposures are manageable and EMF concern is not justified. Maintenance procedures demand proper attention. Preliminary laser safety assessment reveals OHS gaps and potential eye and skin hazards. Blue light exposure from computer monitors is well below safety limits.

Conclusions: This electromagnetic spectrum risk assessment conducted in Greece enables the justification of the real occupational hazards, in this sense: i) EMF exposure assessment has to be concentrated to maintenance procedures; ii) AOR measuring setups are challenging and standardized measurement procedures are missing, and iii) AOR overexposures from arc welding pose significant eye and skin hazards.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35481582/

 

 

Risk assessment for heat stress during work and leisure – Chapter 32

Ioannou L.G.Risk assessment for heat stress during work and leisure - Chapter 32 - FAME Lab, Gkikas G., Mantzios K., Tsoutsoubi L., Flouris A.D. Risk assessment for heat stress during work and leisure – Chapter 32. Toxicological Risk Assessment and Multi-System Health Impacts from Exposure 2021, Pages 373-385.

Abstract
Rising environmental temperatures have become a growing challenge for societies across the globe. At the same time, occupational heat strain undermines the health and productivity of individuals working in key industries.

In this chapter, we combine a narrative review with observational studies to outline the 18 factors affecting the risk for experiencing heat strain during work and leisure, which are: acclimatization, aging, anthropometrics, clothing, cultural habits, diet, disabilities, drugs and addictions, environmental stress, ethnicity, heat mitigation, medical conditions, metabolic demands, physical fitness, sex, sleep deprivation, work duration, and work experience.

Addressing these risk factors will generate significant savings to healthcare systems from the occupational heat illness, absenteeism, and mortality associated with heat strain. Increased efforts should be made to educate individuals and organizations about the health, performance, and productivity risks related to heat strain and appropriate screening protocols should be incorporated within health and safety legislation.

Full Text Link:

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780323852159000040?via%3Dihub

 

 

Determinants of heat stress and strain in electrical utilities workers across North America as assessed by means of an exploratory questionnaire

Determinants of heat stress and strain in electrical utilities workers across North America as assessed by means of an exploratory questionnaire -FAME Lab Flouris AD, Ioannou LG, Notley SR, Kenny GP. Determinants of heat stress and strain in electrical utilities workers across North America as assessed by means of an exploratory questionnaire. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2022 Jan;19(1):12-22. doi: 10.1080/15459624.2021.2001475. Epub 2021 Dec 16. PMID: 34731074.

Abstract:

Previous field studies monitoring small groups of participants showed that heat stress in the electrical utilities industry may be detrimental to worker health and safety. Our aim in this study was to characterize heat stress and strain in electrical utilities workers across North America. A total of 428 workers in the power generation, transmission, and distribution industry across 16 U.S. states and 3 Canadian Provinces completed a two-part on-line questionnaire anonymously.

The first part comprised 13 general questions on the employee’s workplace location, role in the organization, years of experience, general duties, average work shift duration, and other job-related information. It also included two questions on self-reported heat stress. The second part consisted of the “Heat Strain Score Index” (HSSI), a validated questionnaire which evaluates heat stress at the workplace as “safe level” (score ≤13.5: worker experiences no/low heat strain), “caution level” (score 13.6 to 18.0: moderate risk for heat strain), and “danger level” (score >18.0: high risk for heat strain). In addition to the survey, we obtained meteorological data from weather stations in proximity (12.3 ± 12.2 km) to the work locations.

Based on the HSSI, 32.9%, 22.3%, and 44.4% of the responders’ workplaces were diagnosed as “safe level,” “caution level,” and “danger level,” respectively. The HSSI varied significantly depending on the occupation from 4.9 ± 3.2 in contact center workforce to 19.1 ± 5.4 in mechanics (p < 0.001), and demonstrated moderate linear relationships with summertime (June, July, August) midday air temperature (r = 0.317, p < 0.001) and outdoor midday Wet-Bulb Globe Temperature (r = 0.322, p < 0.001). The highest HSSI was observed in mechanics, machine operators in line installations, line workers, electricians, and meter-readers. We conclude that electrical utilities workers experience instances of severe environmental heat stress resulting in elevated levels of heat strain, particularly when performing physically demanding tasks (e.g., manually climbing utility poles, installing lines).

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34731074/

 

 

Effects of in vitro muscle contraction on thermogenic protein levels in co-cultured adipocytes

Effects of in vitro muscle contraction on thermogenic protein levels in co-cultured adipocytes - FAME LabNintou E, Karligiotou E, Vliora M, Fatouros IG, Jamurtas AZ, Sakellaridis N, Dimas K, Flouris AD. Effects of In Vitro Muscle Contraction on Thermogenic Protein Levels in Co-Cultured Adipocytes. Life (Basel). 2021 Nov 12;11(11):1227. doi: 10.3390/life11111227. PMID: 34833103; PMCID: PMC8625343. 

Abstract:

The crosstalk between the exercising muscle and the adipose tissue, mediated by myokines and metabolites, derived from both tissues during exercise has created a controversy between animal and human studies with respect to the impact of exercise on the browning process.

The aim of this study was to investigate whether co-culturing of C2C12 myotubes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes under the stimuli of electrical pulse stimulation (EPS) mimicking muscle contraction can impact the expression of UCP1, PGC-1a, and IL-6 in adipocytes, therefore providing evidence on the direct crosstalk between adipocytes and stimulated muscle cells. In the co-cultured C2C12 cells, EPS increased the expression of PGC-1a (p = 0.129; d = 0.73) and IL-6 (p = 0.09; d = 1.13) protein levels.

When EPS was applied, we found that co-culturing led to increases in UCP1 (p = 0.044; d = 1.29) and IL-6 (p = 0.097; d = 1.13) protein expression in the 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The expression of PGC-1a increased by EPS but was not significantly elevated after co-culturing (p = 0.448; d = 0.08). In vitro co-culturing of C2C12 myotubes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes under the stimuli of EPS leads to increased expression of thermogenic proteins. These findings indicate changes in the expression pattern of proteins related to browning of adipose tissue, supporting the use of this in vitro model to study the crosstalk between adipocytes and contracting muscle.

Full Text Link: 

https://www.mdpi.com/2075-1729/11/11/1227/htm

Download PDF:

https://www.famelab.gr/wp-content/uploads/2021/11/Effects-of-In-Vitro-Muscle-Contraction-on-Thermogenic-Protein-Levels-in-Co-Cultured-Adipocytes-2021.pdf

 

 

Quantifying the impact of heat on human physical work capacity; part II: the observed interaction of air velocity with temperature, humidity, sweat rate, and clothing is not captured by most heat stress indices

Quantifying the impact of heat on human physical work capacity; part II: the observed interaction of air velocity with temperature, humidity, sweat rate, and clothing is not captured by most heat stress indicesFoster J, Smallcombe JW, Hodder S, Jay O, Flouris AD, Havenith G. Quantifying the impact of heat on human physical work capacity; part II: the observed interaction of air velocity with temperature, humidity, sweat rate, and clothing is not captured by most heat stress indices. Int J Biometeorol. 2022 Mar;66(3):507-520. doi: 10.1007/s00484-021-02212-y. Epub 2021 Nov 6. PMID: 34743228; PMCID: PMC8850241.

Abstract:

Increasing air movement can alleviate or exacerbate occupational heat strain, but the impact is not well defined across a wide range of hot environments, with different clothing levels. Therefore, we combined a large empirical study with a physical model of human heat transfer to determine the climates where increased air movement (with electric fans) provides effective body cooling.

The model allowed us to generate practical advice using a high-resolution matrix of temperature and humidity. The empirical study involved a total of 300 1-h work trials in a variety of environments (35, 40, 45, and 50 °C, with 20 up to 80% relative humidity) with and without simulated wind (3.5 vs 0.2 m∙s-1), and wearing either minimal clothing or a full body work coverall. Our data provides compelling evidence that the impact of fans is strongly determined by air temperature and humidity.

When air temperature is ≥ 35 °C, fans are ineffective and potentially harmful when relative humidity is below 50%. Our simulated data also show the climates where high wind/fans are beneficial or harmful, considering heat acclimation, age, and wind speed. Using unified weather indices, the impact of air movement is well captured by the universal thermal climate index, but not by wet-bulb globe temperature and aspirated wet-bulb temperature.

Overall, the data from this study can inform new guidance for major public and occupational health agencies, potentially maintaining health and productivity in a warming climate.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34743228/

 

 

Quantifying the impact of heat on human physical work capacity; part III: the impact of solar radiation varies with air temperature, humidity, and clothing coverage

Quantifying the impact of heat on human physical work capacity; part III: the impact of solar radiation varies with air temperature, humidity, and clothing coverage - FAME LabFoster J, Smallcombe JW, Hodder S, Jay O, Flouris AD, Nybo L, Havenith G. Quantifying the impact of heat on human physical work capacity; part III: the impact of solar radiation varies with air temperature, humidity, and clothing coverage. Int J Biometeorol. 2022 Jan;66(1):175-188. doi: 10.1007/s00484-021-02205-x. Epub 2021 Oct 28. PMID: 34709466; PMCID: PMC8727397.

Abstract:

Heat stress decreases human physical work capacity (PWC), but the extent to which solar radiation (SOLAR) compounds this response is not well understood. This study empirically quantified how SOLAR impacts PWC in the heat, considering wide, but controlled, variations in air temperature, humidity, and clothing coverage. We also provide correction equations so PWC can be quantified outdoors using heat stress indices that do not ordinarily account for SOLAR (including the Heat Stress Index, Humidex, and Wet-Bulb Temperature).

Fourteen young adult males (7 donning a work coverall, 7 with shorts and trainers) walked for 1 h at a fixed heart rate of 130 beats∙min-1, in seven combinations of air temperature (25 to 45°C) and relative humidity (20 or 80%), with and without SOLAR (800 W/m2 from solar lamps). Cumulative energy expenditure in the heat, relative to the work achieved in a cool reference condition, was used to determine PWC%. Skin temperature was the primary determinant of PWC in the heat.

In dry climates with exposed skin (0.3 Clo), SOLAR caused PWC to decrease exponentially with rising air temperature, whereas work coveralls (0.9 Clo) negated this effect. In humid conditions, the SOLAR-induced reduction in PWC was consistent and linear across all levels of air temperature and clothing conditions. Wet-Bulb Globe Temperature and the Universal Thermal Climate Index represented SOLAR correctly and did not require a correction factor. For the Heat Stress Index, Humidex, and Wet-Bulb Temperature, correction factors are provided enabling forecasting of heat effects on work productivity.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34709466/

 

 

Effects of weather parameters on endurance running performance: discipline-specific analysis of 1258 races

Effects of weather parameters on endurance running performance: discipline-specific analysis of 1258 races - FAME LabMantzios K, Ioannou LG, Panagiotaki Z, Ziaka S, Périard JD, Racinais S, Nybo L, Flouris AD. Effects of Weather Parameters on Endurance Running Performance: Discipline-specific Analysis of 1258 Races. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2022 Jan 1;54(1):153-161. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000002769. PMID: 34652333; PMCID: PMC8677617.

Abstract:

Introduction: This study evaluated how single or combinations of weather parameters (temperature, humidity, wind speed, solar load) affect peak performance during endurance running events and identify which events are most vulnerable to varying weather conditions.

Methods: Results for the marathon, 50 km race-walk, 20 km race-walk, 10,000 m, 5,000 m and 3,000 m-steeplechase were obtained from the official websites of large competitions. We identified meteorological data from nearby (8.9 ± 9.3 km) weather stations for 1258 races held between 1936 and 2019 across 42 countries, enabling analysis of 7867 athletes.

Results: The Wet-Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) across races ranged from -7 to 33 °C, with 27% of races taking place in cold/cool, 47% in neutral, 18% in moderate heat, 7% in high heat, and 1% in extreme heat conditions, according to the World Athletics classification. Machine learning decision trees (R2 values: 0.21-0.58) showed that air temperature (importance score: 40%) was the most important weather parameter. But, when used alone, air temperature had lower predictive power (R2 values: 0.04-0.34) than WBGT (R2 values: 0.11-0.47). Conditions of 7.5-15 °C WBGT (or 10-17.5 °C air temperature) increase the likelihood for peak performance. For every degree WBGT outside these optimum conditions, performance declined by 0.3-0.4%.

Conclusion: More than one-quarter of endurance running events were held in moderate, high, or extreme heat and this number reaches one-half for events other than the marathon. All four weather parameters must be evaluated to mitigate the health and performance implications of exercising at maximal intensities in a hot environment with athletes adopting heat mitigation strategies when possible.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34652333/

 

 

Current and projected regional economic impacts of heatwaves in Europe

FAME Lab - Current and projected regional economic impacts of heatwaves in EuropeGarcía-León D, Casanueva A, Standardi G, Burgstall A, Flouris AD, Nybo L. Current and projected regional economic impacts of heatwaves in Europe. Nat Commun. 2021 Oct 4;12(1):5807. doi: 10.1038/s41467-021-26050-z. PMID: 34608159; PMCID: PMC8490455.

Abstract:

Extreme heat undermines the working capacity of individuals, resulting in lower productivity, and thus economic output. Here we analyse the present and future economic damages due to reduced labour productivity caused by extreme heat in Europe.

For the analysis of current impacts, we focused on heatwaves occurring in four recent anomalously hot years (2003, 2010, 2015, and 2018) and compared our findings to the historical period 1981-2010.

In the selected years, the total estimated damages attributed to heatwaves amounted to 0.3-0.5% of European gross domestic product (GDP). However, the identified losses were largely heterogeneous across space, consistently showing GDP impacts beyond 1% in more vulnerable regions. Future projections indicate that by 2060 impacts might increase in Europe by a factor of almost five compared to the historical period 1981-2010 if no further mitigation or adaptation actions are taken, suggesting the presence of more pronounced effects in the regions where these damages are already acute.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34608159/

 

 

Heat Tolerance and Occupational Heat Exposure Limits in Older Men with and without Type 2 Diabetes or Hypertension

Heat Tolerance and Occupational Heat Exposure Limits in Older Men with and without Type 2 Diabetes or HypertensionNotley SR, Akerman AP, Friesen BJ, Poirier MP, Sigal RJ, Flouris AD, Boulay P, McCourt E, Ruzicka M, Kenny GP. Heat Tolerance and Occupational Heat Exposure Limits in Older Men with and without Type 2 Diabetes or Hypertension. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2021 Oct 1;53(10):2196-2206. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000002698. PMID: 33988544.

Abstract:

Purpose: To mitigate rises in core temperature >1°C, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) recommends upper limits for heat stress (action limit values [ALV]), defined by wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) and a worker’s metabolic rate. However, these limits are based on data from young men and are assumed to be suitable for all workers, irrespective of age or health status. We therefore explored the effect of aging, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and hypertension (HTN) on tolerance to prolonged, moderate-intensity work above and below these limits.

Methods: Core temperature and heart rate were assessed in healthy, heat unacclimatized young (18-30 yr, n = 13) and older (50-70 yr) men (n = 14) and heat unacclimatized older men with T2D (n = 10) or HTN (n = 13) during moderate-intensity (metabolic rate: 200 W·m-2) walking for 180 min (or until termination) in environments above (28°C and 32°C WBGT) and below (16°C and 24°C WBGT) the ALV for continuous work at this intensity (25°C WBGT).

Results: Work tolerance in the 32°C WBGT was shorter in men with T2D (median [IQR]; 109 [91-173] min; P = 0.041) and HTN (120 [65-170] min; P = 0.010) compared with healthy older men (180 [133-180] min). However, aging, T2D, and HTN did not significantly influence (i) core temperature or heart rate reserve, irrespective of WBGT; (ii) the probability that core temperature exceeded recommended limits (>1°C) under the ALV; and (iii) work duration before core temperature exceeded recommended limits (>1°C) above the ALV.

Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that T2D and HTN attenuate tolerance to uncompensable heat stress (32°C WBGT); however, these chronic diseases do not significantly impact thermal and cardiovascular strain, or the validity of ACIGH recommendations during moderate-intensity work.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33988544/

 

 

Associations between nutrition, energy expenditure and energy availability with bone mass acquisition in dance students: a 3-year longitudinal study

Associations between nutrition, energy expenditure and energy availability with bone mass acquisition in dance students a 3-year longitudinal studyAmorim T, Freitas L, Metsios GS, Gomes TN, Wyon M, Flouris AD, Maia J, Marques F, Nogueira L, Adubeiro N, Koutedakis Y. Associations between nutrition, energy expenditure and energy availability with bone mass acquisition in dance students: a 3-year longitudinal study. Arch Osteoporos. 2021 Sep 24;16(1):141. doi: 10.1007/s11657-021-01005-5. PMID: 34561723.

Abstract:

Three years of study showed that female and male vocational dancers displayed lower bone mass compared to controls, at forearm, lumbar spine and femoral neck. Energy intake was found to positively predict bone mass accruals only in female dancers at femoral neck. Vocational dancers can be a risk population to develop osteoporosis.

Purpose: To determine whether risk factors normally associated with low bone mass in athletic populations (i.e. nutrition intake, energy expenditure and energy availability) are significant predictors of bone mass changes in vocational dance students.

Methods: The total of 101 vocational dancers (63 females, 12.8 ± 2.2 years; 38 males, 12.7 ± 2.2 years) and 115 age-matched controls (68 females, 13.0 ± 2.1 years; 47 males, 13.0 ± 1.8 years) were monitored for 3 consecutive years. Bone mass parameters were measured annually at impact sites (femoral neck, FN; lumber spine, LS) and non-impact site (forearm) using DXA. Nutrition (3-day record), energy expenditure (accelerometer), energy availability and IGF-1 serum concentration (immunoradiometric assays) were also assessed.

Results: Female and male vocational dancers had consistently reduced bone mass at all anatomical sites (p < 0.001) than controls. IGF-1 did not differ between male vocational dancers and controls, but female dancers showed it higher than controls. At baseline, calcium intake was significantly greater in female vocational dancers than controls (p < 0.05). Male vocational dancers’ fat and carbohydrate intakes were significantly lower than matched controls (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05, respectively). Energy availability of both female and male vocational dancers was within the normal range. A significant group effect was found at the FN regarding energy intake (p < 0.05) in female dancers. No significant predictors were found to explain bone mass differences in males.

Conclusion: Our 3-year study revealed that both female and male vocational dancers displayed lower bone mass compared to controls, at both impact and non-impact sites. The aetiology of these findings may be grounded on factors different than those usually considered in athletic populations.

Full Text Link:
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34561723/

 

 

Effects of alpha-lipoic acid supplementation on human diabetic nephropathy: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Effects of alpha-lipoic acid supplementation on human diabetic nephropathy: A systematic review and meta-analysisVakali E, Rigopoulos D, Carrillo AE, Flouris AD, Dinas PC. Effects of alpha-lipoic acid supplementation on human diabetic nephropathy: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Curr Diabetes Rev. 2021 Sep 13. doi: 10.2174/1573399817666210914103329. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34521329.

Abstract:

Background: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a kidney dysfunction, which occurs due to elevated urine albumin excretion rate and reduced glomerular filtration rate. Studies in animals have shown that alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) supplementation can reduce the development of DN. Objectives: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the effects of ALA supplementation on biological indices (albumin, creatinine etc.) indicative of human DN.

Methods: The searching procedure included the databases PubMed Central, Embase, Cochrane Library (trials) and Web of Science, (protocol registration: INPLASY 202060095).

Results: We found that ALA supplementation decreased urine albumin 24h excretion rate in patients with diabetes [standardized mean difference=-2.27; confidence interval (CI)=(-4.09)-(-0.45); I2=98%; Z=2.44; p=0.01]. A subgroup analysis revealed that the studies examining only ALA, did not differ from those examined ALA in combination with additional medicines (Chi-squared=0.19; p=0.66; I2=0%), while neither ALA nor ALA plus medication had an effect on urine albumin 24h excretion rate (p>0.05). Also, ALA supplementation decreased urine albumin mg/l [mean difference (MD)=-12.95; CI=(-23.88)-(-2.02); I2=44%; Z=2.32; p=0.02] and urine albumin to creatinine ratio [MD=-26.96; CI=(-35.25)-(-18.67); I2=0%; Z=6.37; p<0.01] in patients with diabetes. When the studies that examined ALA plus medication were removed, ALA supplementation had no effect on urine albumin mg/l (p>0.05), but did significantly decrease urine albumin to creatinine ratio [MD=-25.88, CI=(34.40-(-17.36), I2=0%, Z=5.95, p<0.00001].

Conclusion: The available evidence suggests that ALA supplementation does not improve biological indices that reflect DN in humans. Overall, we identified limited evidence and therefore, the outcomes should be considered with caution.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34521329/

 

 

Mortality due to circulatory causes in hot and cold environments in Greece

FAME Lab - Mortality due to circulatory causes in hot and cold environments in GreeceTsoutsoubi L, Ioannou LG, Flouris AD. Mortality due to circulatory causes in hot and cold environments in Greece. Scand Cardiovasc J. 2021 Dec;55(6):333-335. doi: 10.1080/14017431.2021.1970801. Epub 2021 Sep 8. PMID: 34494493.

Abstract:

Ambient temperature can affect the survival rate of humans. Studies have shown a relationship between ambient temperature and mortality rate in hot and cold environments. This effect of ambient temperature on mortality seems to be more pronounced in older people. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of thermal stress on cardiovascular mortality and the associated relative risk per degree Celsius in Greek individuals ≥70 years old. Mortality data 1999-2012 were matched with the midday temperature. The present study found a higher circulatory mortality when ambient temperature is below or above the temperature range 6 to 39 °C.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34494493/

 

 

Proposed framework for forecasting heat-effects on motor-cognitive performance in the Summer Olympics

Proposed framework for forecasting heat-effects on motor-cognitive performance in the Summer OlympicsPiil JF, Kingma B, Morris NB, Christiansen L, Ioannou LG, Flouris AD, Nybo L. Proposed framework for forecasting heat-effects on motor-cognitive performance in the Summer Olympics. Temperature (Austin). 2021 Aug 20;8(3):262-283. doi: 10.1080/23328940.2021.1957367. PMID: 34485620; PMCID: PMC8409751.

Abstract:

Heat strain impairs performance across a broad spectrum of sport disciplines. The impeding effects of hyperthermia and dehydration are often ascribed to compromised cardiovascular and muscular functioning, but expert performance also depends on appropriately tuned sensory, motor and cognitive processes. Considering that hyperthermia has implications for central nervous system (CNS) function and fatigue, it is highly relevant to analyze how heat stress forecasted for the upcoming Olympics may influence athletes. This paper proposes and demonstrates the use of a framework combining expected weather conditions with a heat strain and motor-cognitive model to analyze the impact of heat and associated factors on discipline- and scenario-specific performances during the Tokyo 2021 games.

We pinpoint that hyperthermia-induced central fatigue may affect prolonged performances and analyze how hyperthermia may impair complex motor-cognitive performance, especially when accompanied by either moderate dehydration or exposure to severe solar radiation. Interestingly, several short explosive performances may benefit from faster cross-bridge contraction velocities at higher muscle temperatures in sport disciplines with little or no negative heat-effect on CNS fatigue or motor-cognitive performance.

In the analyses of scenarios and Olympic sport disciplines, we consider thermal impacts on “motor-cognitive factors” such as decision-making, maximal and fine motor-activation as well as the influence on central fatigue and pacing. From this platform, we also provide perspectives on how athletes and coaches can identify risks for their event and potentially mitigate negative motor-cognitive effects for and optimize performance in the environmental settings projected.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34485620/

 

 

An exploratory survey of heat stress management programs in the electric power industry

An exploratory survey of heat stress management programs in the electric power industryKaltsatou A, Notley SR, Flouris AD, Kenny GP. An exploratory survey of heat stress management programs in the electric power industry. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2021 Sep;18(9):436-445. doi: 10.1080/15459624.2021.1954187. Epub 2021 Aug 18. PMID: 34406910.

Abstract:

Workers in the electric power industry commonly perform physically demanding jobs in hot environments, which combined with the protective clothing worn, places them at risk of disease and health problems related to occupational heat stress. With climate change fueling an increase in the occurrence of hot weather, a targeted approach to heat stress management within the industry is needed.

To better understand current heat management practices and identify opportunities for refinement, we conducted an exploratory survey among 33 electric utility companies operating in the United States (n = 32) and Canada (n = 1). Forty-six employees responsible for health and safety of company workers completed 26 questions assessing heat stress as a workplace hazard and heat management practices within five categories: (1) use and administration of heat stress management program; (2) surveillance of heat stress and heat strain; (3) job evaluation and heat-mitigation guidance; (4) education and training programs; and (5) treatment of heat-related illness.

While a majority of the respondents (87.0%) indicated heat stress is a workplace hazard and their organization has a heat stress management program (78.3%), less than half reported performing real-time monitoring of heat stress in the workplace (47.8%) or tracking worker heat strain (19.6%) (i.e., physiological response to heat stress).

However, most organizations indicated they conducted pre-job evaluations for heat stress (71.7%) and implemented an employee training program on managing heat stress (73.9%). The latter included instruction on various short- and long-term heat-mitigation guidance for workers (e.g., use of work exposure limits, hydration protocols) and the prevention (52.2%) and treatment (63.1%) of heat-related illnesses. Altogether, our survey demonstrates that although many companies employ some form of a heat management program, the basic components defining the programs vary and are lacking for some companies.

To maximize worker health and safety during work in hot environments, a consensus-based approach, which considers the five basic components of a heat management program, should be employed to formulate effective practices and methodologies for creating an industry-specific heat management strategy.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34406910/

 

 

Improving the evidence on health inequities in migrant construction workers preparing for big sporting events

FAME Lab - Improving the evidence on health inequities in migrant construction workers preparing for big sporting eventsFlouris AD, Babar Z, Ioannou LG, Onarheim KH, Phua KH, Hargreaves S. Improving the evidence on health inequities in migrant construction workers preparing for big sporting events. BMJ. 2021 Aug 5;374:n1615. doi: 10.1136/bmj.n1615. PMID: 34353788; PMCID: PMC8340916.

Abstract:

Improving the evidence on health inequities in migrant construction workers preparing for big sporting events. Data suggest migrant construction workers are at risk of work related ill health, injury, and death, but better evidence to inform policy making and improve their health is needed, say Andreas Flouris and colleagues.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34353788/

 

 

Health and social needs of migrant construction workers for big sporting events

Health and social needs- BMJOnarheim KH, Phua KH, Babar ZR, Flouris AD, Hargreaves S. Health and social needs of migrant construction workers for big sporting events. BMJ. 2021 Aug 5;374:n1591. doi: 10.1136/bmj.n1591. Erratum in: BMJ. 2021 Oct 12;375:n2489. PMID: 34353809; PMCID: PMC8340932. 

Abstract:

Health and social needs of migrant construction workers for big sporting events. Governments, international sports bodies, and industry must take responsibility for barriers to health experienced by migrant workers involved in events such as the Olympic Games and FIFA World Cup, argue Kristine Husøy Onarheim and colleagues.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34353809/

 

 

Heat Safety in the Workplace: Modified Delphi Consensus to Establish Strategies and Resources to Protect the US Workers

Heat Safety in the Workplace Modified Delphi Consensus to Establish Strategies and Resources to Protect the US WorkersMorrissey MC, Casa DJ, Brewer GJ, Adams WM, Hosokawa Y, Benjamin CL, Grundstein AJ, Hostler D, McDermott BP, McQuerry ML, Stearns RL, Filep EM, DeGroot DW, Fulcher J, Flouris AD, Huggins RA, Jacklitsch BL, Jardine JF, Lopez RM, McCarthy RB, Pitisladis Y, Pryor RR, Schlader ZJ, Smith CJ, Smith DL, Spector JT, Vanos JK, Williams WJ, Vargas NT, Yeargin SW. Heat Safety in the Workplace: Modified Delphi Consensus to Establish Strategies and Resources to Protect the US Workers. Geohealth. 2021 Aug 1;5(8):e2021GH000443. doi: 10.1029/2021GH000443. PMID: 34471788; PMCID: PMC8388206.

Abstract:

The purpose of this consensus document was to develop feasible, evidence-based occupational heat safety recommendations to protect the US workers that experience heat stress. Heat safety recommendations were created to protect worker health and to avoid productivity losses associated with occupational heat stress.

Recommendations were tailored to be utilized by safety managers, industrial hygienists, and the employers who bear responsibility for implementing heat safety plans. An interdisciplinary roundtable comprised of 51 experts was assembled to create a narrative review summarizing current data and gaps in knowledge within eight heat safety topics: (a) heat hygiene, (b) hydration, (c) heat acclimatization, (d) environmental monitoring, (e) physiological monitoring, (f) body cooling, (g) textiles and personal protective gear, and (h) emergency action plan implementation. The consensus-based recommendations for each topic were created using the Delphi method and evaluated based on scientific evidence, feasibility, and clarity. The current document presents 40 occupational heat safety recommendations across all eight topics.

Establishing these recommendations will help organizations and employers create effective heat safety plans for their workplaces, address factors that limit the implementation of heat safety best-practices and protect worker health and productivity.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34471788/

 

 

The Impacts of Sun Exposure on Worker Physiology and Cognition: Multi-Country Evidence and Interventions

FAME Lab - The Impacts of Sun Exposure on Worker Physiology and Cognition Multi-Country Evidence and InterventionsIoannou LG, Tsoutsoubi L, Mantzios K, Gkikas G, Piil JF, Dinas PC, Notley SR, Kenny GP, Nybo L, Flouris AD. The Impacts of Sun Exposure on Worker Physiology and Cognition: Multi-Country Evidence and Interventions. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Jul 20;18(14):7698. doi: 10.3390/ijerph18147698. PMID: 34300148; PMCID: PMC8303297.

Abstract:

Background: A set of four case-control (n = 109), randomized-controlled (n = 7), cross-sectional (n = 78), and intervention (n = 47) studies was conducted across three countries to investigate the effects of sun exposure on worker physiology and cognition.

Methods: Physiological, subjective, and cognitive performance data were collected from people working in ambient conditions characterized by the same thermal stress but different solar radiation levels.

Results: People working under the sun were more likely to experience dizziness, weakness, and other symptoms of heat strain. These clinical impacts of sun exposure were not accompanied by changes in core body temperature but, instead, were linked with changes in skin temperature. Other physiological responses (heart rate, skin blood flow, and sweat rate) were also increased during sun exposure, while attention and vigilance were reduced by 45% and 67%, respectively, compared to exposure to a similar thermal stress without sunlight. Light-colored clothes reduced workers’ skin temperature by 12-13% compared to darker-colored clothes.

Conclusions: Working under the sun worsens the physiological heat strain experienced and compromises cognitive function, even when the level of heat stress is thought to be the same as being in the shade. Wearing light-colored clothes can limit the physiological heat strain experienced by the body.

Full Text Link:

https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/18/14/7698/htm

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https://www.famelab.gr/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/The-impacts-of-sun-exposure-on-worker-physiology-and-cognition-multi-country-evidence-and-interventions_2021.pdf

 

 

Football facing a future with global warming: perspectives for players health and performance

FAME Lab - Football facing a future with global warming, perspectives for players health and performanceNybo L, Flouris AD, Racinais S, Mohr M. Football facing a future with global warming: perspectives for players health and performance. Br J Sports Med. 2021 Mar;55(6):297-298. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2020-102193. Epub 2020 Jul 1. PMID: 32611544.

Abstract:

Football facing a future with global warming: perspectives for players health and performance. Escalating environmental temperatures are expected to influence performance and planning of several future football events, for example, FIFA World Cups, regular league and continental cup matches and climate projections for Tokyo (Olympic Games postponed to August 2021) implies that athletes are facing high heat exposure in the next Olympic football tournament.

Prompted by global warming, but also with current conditions and historic heat-events in mind, it is relevant to consider the consequences for football play and players health. Heat stress has detrimental effects on endurance performances and sudden or extreme exposure is a major health concern. Moreover, heat stress could, in some situations, create an unsportsmanlike competitive advantage for the home team and fair play may require special planning and precaution procedures.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32611544/

 

 

Occupational heat stress: multi-country observations and interventions

FAME Lab - Occupational Heat Stress - Multi-Country Observations and InterventionsIoannou LG, Mantzios K, Tsoutsoubi L, Nintou E, Vliora M, Gkiata P, Dallas CN, Gkikas G, Agaliotis G, Sfakianakis K, Kapnia AK, Testa DJ, Amorim T, Dinas PC, Mayor TS, Gao C, Nybo L, Flouris AD. Occupational Heat Stress: Multi-Country Observations and Interventions. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Jun 10;18(12):6303. doi: 10.3390/ijerph18126303. PMID: 34200783; PMCID: PMC8296111. 

Abstract:

Occupational Heat Stress: Multi-Country Observations and Interventions. Background: Occupational heat exposure can provoke health problems that increase the risk of certain diseases and affect workers’ ability to maintain healthy and productive lives. This study investigates the effects of occupational heat stress on workers’ physiological strain and labor productivity, as well as examining multiple interventions to mitigate the problem.

Methods: We monitored 518 full work-shifts obtained from 238 experienced and acclimatized individuals who work in key industrial sectors located in Cyprus, Greece, Qatar, and Spain. Continuous core body temperature, mean skin temperature, heart rate, and labor productivity were collected from the beginning to the end of all work-shifts.

Results: In workplaces where self-pacing is not feasible or very limited, we found that occupational heat stress is associated with the heat strain experienced by workers. Strategies focusing on hydration, work-rest cycles, and ventilated clothing were able to mitigate the physiological heat strain experienced by workers. Increasing mechanization enhanced labor productivity without increasing workers’ physiological strain. Conclusions: Empowering laborers to self-pace is the basis of heat mitigation, while tailored strategies focusing on hydration, work-rest cycles, ventilated garments, and mechanization can further reduce the physiological heat strain experienced by workers under certain conditions.

Full Text Link:

https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/18/12/6303/htm

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https://www.famelab.gr/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Occupational-Heat-Stress-Multi-Country-Observations-and-Interventions_2021.pdf

 

 

The presence of fungal and parasitic infections in substances of human origin and their transmission via transfusions and transplantations: protocol for two systematic reviews

The presence of fungal and parasitic infections in substances of human origin and their transmission via transfusions and transplantations - JMIR PublicationsDinas PC, Domanovic D, Koutedakis Y, Hadjichristodoulou C, Stefanidis I, Papadopoulou K, Dimas K, Perivoliotis K, Tepetes K, Flouris AD. The Presence of Fungal and Parasitic Infections in Substances of Human Origin and Their Transmission via Transfusions and Transplantations: Protocol for Two Systematic Reviews. JMIR Res Protoc. 2021 Jun 10;10(6):e25674. doi: 10.2196/25674. PMID: 34110295; PMCID: PMC8262548. 

Abstract:

Background: The European Union Directives stipulate mandatory tests for the presence of any infections in donors and donations of substances of human origin (SoHO). In some circumstances, other pathogens, including fungi and parasites, may also pose a threat to the microbial safety of SoHO.

Objective: The aim of the two systematic reviews is to identify, collect, and evaluate scientific evidence for the presence of fungal and parasitic infections in donors and donations of SoHO, and their transmission via transfusion and transplantation.

Methods: An algorithmic search, one each for fungal and parasitic disease, was applied to 6 scientific databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane Library [trials], and CINAHL). Additionally, manual and algorithmic searches were employed in 15 gray literature databases and 22 scientific organization websites.
The criteria for eligibility included peer-reviewed publications and peer-reviewed abstract publications from conference proceedings examining the prevalence, incidence, odds ratios, risk ratios, and risk differences for the presence of fungi and parasites in donors and SoHO donations, and their transmission to recipients. Only studies that scrutinized the donors and donations of human blood, blood components, tissues, cells, and organs were considered eligible. Data extraction from eligible publications will be performed independently by two reviewers. Data synthesis will include a qualitative description of the studies lacking evidence suitable for a meta-analysis and a random or fixed-effect meta-analysis model for quantitative data synthesis.

Results: This is an ongoing study. The systematic reviews are funded by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, and the results are expected to be presented by the end of 2021. Conclusions: The systematic reviews will provide the basis for developing a risk assessment for fungal and parasitic disease transmission via SoHO.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34110295/

 

 

Environmental and psychophysical heat stress in adolescent tennis athletes

Environmental and psychophysical heat stress in adolescent tennis athletes - IJSPPMisailidi M, Mantzios K, Papakonstantinou C, Ioannou LG, Flouris AD. Environmental and Psychophysical Heat Stress in Adolescent Tennis Athletes. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2021 May 21;16(12):1895-1900. doi: 10.1123/ijspp.2020-0820. PMID: 34021093.

Abstract:

Purpose: We investigated the environmental conditions in which all outdoor International Tennis Federation (ITF) junior tournaments (athlete ages: <18 y) were held during 2010-2019. Thereafter, we performed a crossover trial (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04197375) assessing the efficacy of head-neck precooling for mitigating the heat-induced psychophysical and performance impacts on junior athletes during tennis match play.

Methods: ITF junior tournament information was collected. We identified meteorological data from nearby (13.6 [20.3] km) weather stations for 3056 (76%) tournaments. Results: Overall, 30.1% of tournaments were held in hot (25°C-30°C wet-bulb globe temperature [WBGT]; 25.9%), very hot (30°C-35°C WBGT; 4.1%), or extremely hot (>35°C WBGT; 0.1%) conditions.

Thereafter, 8 acclimatized male junior tennis athletes (age = 16.0 [0.9] y; height = 1.82 [0.04] m; weight = 71.3 [11.1] kg) were evaluated during 2 matches: one with head-neck precooling (27.7°C [2.2°C] WBGT) and one without (27.9°C [1.8°C] WBGT). Head-neck precooling reduced athletes’ core temperature from 36.9°C (0.2°C) to 36.4°C (0.2°C) (P = .001; d = 2.4), an effect reduced by warm-up. Head-neck precooling reduced skin temperature (by 0.3°C [1.3°C]) for the majority of the match and led to improved (P < .05) perceived exertion (by 13%), thermal comfort (by 14%), and thermal sensation (by 15%). Muscle temperature, heart rate, body weight, and urine specific gravity remained unaffected (P ≥ .05; d < 0.2). Small or moderate improvements were observed in most performance parameters assessed (d = 0.20-0.79).

Conclusions: Thirty percent of the last decade’s ITF junior tournaments were held in hot, very hot, or extremely hot conditions (25°C-36°C WBGT). In such conditions, head-neck precooling may somewhat lessen the physiological and perceptual heat strain and lead to small to moderate improvements in the match-play performance of adolescent athletes.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34021093/

 

 

Aerobic fitness as a parameter of importance for labour loss in the heat

Aerobic fitness as a parameter of importance for labour loss in the heat - JSAMSFoster J, Smallcombe JW, Hodder SG, Jay O, Flouris AD, Morris NB, Nybo L, Havenith G. Aerobic fitness as a parameter of importance for labour loss in the heat. J Sci Med Sport. 2021 Aug;24(8):824-830. doi: 10.1016/j.jsams.2021.05.002. Epub 2021 May 8. PMID: 34092508.

Abstract:

Objectives: To derive an empirical model for the impact of aerobic fitness (maximal oxygen consumption; V̇O2max in mL∙kg-1∙min-1) on physical work capacity (PWC) in the heat. Design: Prospective, repeated measures.

Methods: Total work completed during 1 h of treadmill walking at a fixed heart rate of 130 b∙min-1 was assessed in 19 young adult males across a variety of warm and hot climate types, characterised by wet-bulb globe temperatures (WBGT) ranging from 12 to 40 °C. For data presentation and obtaining initial parameter estimates for modelling, participants were grouped into low (n = 6, 74 trials), moderate (n = 8, 76 trials), and high (n = 5, 29 trials) fitness, with group mean V̇O2max 42, 52, and 64 mL∙kg-1∙min-1, respectively. For the heated conditions (WBGT 18 to 40 °C), we calculated PWC% by expressing total energy expenditure (kJ above resting) in each trial relative to that achieved in a cool reference condition (WBGT = 12 °C = 100% PWC).

Results: The relative reduction in energy expenditure (PWC%) caused by heat was significantly smaller by up to 16% for the fit participants compared to those with lower aerobic capacity. V̇O2max also modulated the relationship between sweat rate and body temperature changes to increasing WBGT. Including individual V̇O2max data in the PWC prediction model increased the predicting power by 4%. Conclusions: Incorporating individual V̇O2max improved the predictive power of the heat stress index WBGT for Physical Work Capacity in the heat. The largest impact of V̇O2max on PWC was observed at a WBGT between 25 and 35 °C.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34092508/

 

 

Effect of a Simulated Heat Wave on Physiological Strain and Labour Productivity

Ioannou LGFAME Lab - Effect of a simulated heat wave on physiological strain and labour productivity, Mantzios K, Tsoutsoubi L, Panagiotaki Z, Kapnia AK, Ciuha U, Nybo L, Flouris AD, Mekjavic IB. Effect of a Simulated Heat Wave on Physiological Strain and Labour Productivity. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Mar 15;18(6):3011. doi: 10.3390/ijerph18063011. PMID: 33804091; PMCID: PMC7998810.

Abstract:

Background: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of a simulated heat-wave on the labour productivity and physiological strain experienced by workers.

Methods: Seven males were confined for ten days in controlled ambient conditions. A familiarisation day was followed by three (pre, during, and post-heat-wave) 3-day periods. During each day volunteers participated in a simulated work-shift incorporating two physical activity sessions each followed by a session of assembly line task. Conditions were hot (work: 35.4 °C; rest: 26.3 °C) during, and temperate (work: 25.4 °C; rest: 22.3 °C) pre and post the simulated heat-wave. Physiological, biological, behavioral, and subjective data were collected throughout the study.

Results: The simulated heat-wave undermined human capacity for work by increasing the number of mistakes committed, time spent on unplanned breaks, and the physiological strain experienced by the participants. Early adaptations were able to mitigate the observed implications on the second and third days of the heat-wave, as well as impacting positively on the post-heat-wave period. Conclusions: Here, we show for first time that a controlled simulated heat-wave increases workers’ physiological strain and reduces labour productivity on the first day, but it promotes adaptations mitigating the observed implications during the subsequent days.

Full Text Link:

https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/18/6/3011/htm

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https://www.famelab.gr/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Effect-of-a-Simulated-Heat-Wave-on-Physiological-Strain-and-Labour-Productivity_2021.pdf

 

The HEAT-SHIELD project – perspectives from an inter-sectoral approach to occupational heat stress

FAME Lab - The HEAT-SHIELD project – Perspectives from an inter-sectoral approach to occupational heat stressMorris NB, Piil JF, Morabito M, Messeri A, Levi M, Ioannou LG, Ciuha U, Pogačar T, Kajfež Bogataj L, Kingma B, Casanueva A, Kotlarski S, Spirig C, Foster J, Havenith G, Sotto Mayor T, Flouris AD, Nybo L. The HEAT-SHIELD project – Perspectives from an inter-sectoral approach to occupational heat stress. J Sci Med Sport. 2021 Aug;24(8):747-755. doi: 10.1016/j.jsams.2021.03.001. Epub 2021 Mar 8. PMID: 33757698.

Abstract:

Objectives: To provide perspectives from the HEAT-SHIELD project (www.heat-shield.eu): a multi-national, inter-sectoral, and cross-disciplinary initiative, incorporating twenty European research institutions, as well as occupational health and industrial partners, on solutions to combat negative health and productivity effects caused by working on a warmer world.

Methods: In this invited review, we focus on the theoretical and methodological advancements developed to combat occupational heat stress during the last five years of operation.

Results: We outline how we created climate forecast models to incorporate humidity, wind and solar radiation to the traditional temperature-based climate projections, providing the basis for timely, policy-relevant, industry-specific and individualized information. Further, we summarise the industry-specific guidelines we developed regarding technical and biophysical cooling solutions considering effectiveness, cost, sustainability, and the practical implementation potential in outdoor and indoor settings, in addition to field-testing of selected solutions with time-motion analyses and biophysical evaluations.

All recommendations were adjusted following feedback from workshops with employers, employees, safety officers, and adjacent stakeholders such as local or national health policy makers. The cross-scientific approach was also used for providing policy-relevant information based on socioeconomic analyses and identification of vulnerable regions considered to be more relevant for political actions than average continental recommendations and interventions.

Discussion: From the HEAT-SHIELD experiences developed within European settings, we discuss how this inter-sectoral approach may be adopted or translated into actionable knowledge across continents where workers and societies are affected by escalating environmental temperatures.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33757698/

 

 

An advanced empirical model for quantifying the impact of heat and climate change on human physical work capacity

An advanced empirical model for quantifying the impact of heat and climate change on human physical work capacityFoster J, Smallcombe JW, Hodder S, Jay O, Flouris AD, Nybo L, Havenith G. An advanced empirical model for quantifying the impact of heat and climate change on human physical work capacity. Int J Biometeorol 65, 1215–1229 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00484-021-02105-0

Abstract:

Occupational heat stress directly hampers physical work capacity (PWC), with large economic consequences for industries and regions vulnerable to global warming. Accurately quantifying PWC is essential for forecasting impacts of different climate change scenarios, but the current state of knowledge is limited, leading to potential underestimations in mild heat, and overestimations in extreme heat.

We therefore developed advanced empirical equations for PWC based on 338 work sessions in climatic chambers (low air movement, no solar radiation) spanning mild to extreme heat stress. Equations for PWC are available based on air temperature and humidity, for a suite of heat stress assessment metrics, and mean skin temperature. Our models are highly sensitive to mild heat and to our knowledge are the first to include empirical data across the full range of warm and hot environments possible with future climate change across the world.

Using wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) as an example, we noted 10% reductions in PWC at mild heat stress (WBGT = 18°C) and reductions of 78% in the most extreme conditions (WBGT = 40°C). Of the different heat stress indices available, the heat index was the best predictor of group level PWC (R2 = 0.96) but can only be applied in shaded conditions. The skin temperature, but not internal/core temperature, was a strong predictor of PWC (R2 = 0.88), thermal sensation (R2 = 0.84), and thermal comfort (R2 = 0.73).

The models presented apply to occupational workloads and can be used in climate projection models to predict economic and social consequences of climate change.

Full Text Link:

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00484-021-02105-0

 

 

Exercise heat tolerance in middle-aged-to-older men with type 2 diabetes

FAME Lab - Exercise-heat tolerance in middle-aged-to-older men with type 2 diabetes

Notley SR, Akerman AP, Friesen BJ, Sigal RJ, Flouris AD, Boulay P, Kenny GP. Exercise-heat tolerance in middle-aged-to-older men with type 2 diabetes. Acta Diabetol. 2021 Jun;58(6):809-812. doi: 10.1007/s00592-021-01684-z. Epub 2021 Feb 25. PMID: 33630133. 

No abstract available. 

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33630133/

 

 

Health vs. wealth: Employer, employee and policy-maker perspectives on occupational heat stress across multiple European industries

FAME Lab - Health vs. wealth: Employer, employee and policy-maker perspectives on occupational heat stress across multiple European industries

Morris NB, Levi M, Morabito M, Messeri A, Ioannou LG, Flouris AD, Samoutis G, Pogačar T, Bogataj LK, Piil JF, Nybo L. Health vs. wealth: Employer, employee and policy-maker perspectives on occupational heat stress across multiple European industries. Temperature (Austin). 2020 Dec 14;8(3):284-301. doi: 10.1080/23328940.2020.1852049. PMID: 34485621; PMCID: PMC8409781.

Abstract:

Successful implementation of cooling strategies obviously depends on identifying effective interventions, but in industrial settings, it is equally important to consider feasibility and economic viability. Many cooling interventions are available, but the decision processes affecting adoption by end-users are not well elucidated.

We therefore arranged two series of meetings with stakeholders to identify knowledge gaps, receive feedback on proposed cooling interventions, and discuss factors affecting implementation of heat-health interventions. This included four meetings attended by employers, employees, and health and safety officers (n = 41), and three meetings attended primarily by policy makers (n = 74), with feedback obtained via qualitative and quantitative questionnaires and focus group discussions. On a 10-point scale, both employers and employees valued worker safety (9.1 ± 1.8; mean±SD) and health (8.5 ± 1.9) as more important than protecting company profits (6.3 ± 2.3). Of the respondents, 41% were unaware of any cooling strategies at their company and of those who were aware, only 30% thought the interventions were effective.

Following presentation of proposed interventions, the respondents rated “facilitated hydration”, “optimization of clothing/protective equipment”, and “rescheduling of work tasks” as the top-three preferred solutions. The main barriers for adopting cooling interventions were cost, feasibility, employer perceptions, and legislation. In conclusion, preventing negative health and safety effects was deemed to be more important than preventing productivity loss. Regardless of work sector or occupation, both health and wealth were emphasized as important parameters and considered as somewhat interrelated. However, a large fraction of the European worker force lacks information on effective measures to mitigate occupational heat stress. List of abbreviations: OH-Stress: Occupational heat stress; WBGT: Wet Bulb Globe Temperature.

Full Text Link:

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/23328940.2020.1852049

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https://www.famelab.gr/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Health-vs.-wealth-Employer-employee-and-policy-maker-perspectives-on-occupational-heat-stress-across-multiple-European-industries_2020.pdf

 

 

Prolonged facemask use in the heat worsens dyspnea without compromising motor-cognitive performance

FAME Lab - Prolonged facemask use in the heat worsens dyspnea without compromising motor-cognitive performance

Morris NB, Piil JF, Christiansen L, Flouris AD, Nybo L. Prolonged facemask use in the heat worsens dyspnea without compromising motor-cognitive performance. Temperature (Austin). 2020 Oct 9;8(2):160-165. doi: 10.1080/23328940.2020.1826840. PMID: 33997114; PMCID: PMC8098073.

Abstract: 

Background: Within the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, the WHO endorses facemask use to limit aerosol-spreading of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, concerns have been raised regarding facemask-associated dyspnea, thermal distress and self-reported impairment of cognition. Accordingly, we tested how facemask-use affects motor-cognitive performances of relevance for occupational safety. We hypothesized that mask use would affect cognitively dominated performances and thermal discomfort, but not alter whole-body thermal balance.

Methods: Eight participants completed a facemask and a barefaced (control) trial, in a counterbalanced order, in 40°C and 20% humidity conditions. Motor-cognitive performance, physiological (rectal, mean skin and local facial temperatures) and perceptual (thermal comfort and dyspnea) measures were assessed at baseline and following 45 min of light work (100 W).

Results: Perceived dyspnea was aggravated with prolonged facemask use (p = 0.04), resulting in 36% greater breathlessness compared to control. However, no other differences were observed in motor-cognitive performance, physiological strain, or thermal discomfort.

Conclusions: Contradicting negative self-reported impacts of facemask-use, only dyspnea was aggravated in the present study, thereby reinforcing global recommendations of mask use, even in hot environments. (Funded by: European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under the grant agreement No 668786).

Full Text Link:

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/23328940.2020.1826840

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https://www.famelab.gr/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Prolonged-facemask-use-in-the-heat-worsens-dyspnea-without-compromising-motor-cognitive-performance_2020.pdf

 

 

Evidence for age-related differences in heat acclimatisation responsiveness

FAME Lab - Evidence for age-related differences in heat acclimatisation responsiveness

Notley SR, Meade RD, Akerman AP, Poirier MP, Boulay P, Sigal RJ, Flouris AD, Kenny GP. Evidence for age-related differences in heat acclimatisation responsiveness. Exp Physiol. 2020 Sep;105(9):1491-1499. doi: 10.1113/EP088728. Epub 2020 Jul 17. PMID: 32592411.

Abstract:

New findings: What is the central question of this study? Repeated heat exposure during the summer months can enhance heat loss in humans (seasonal heat acclimatisation), but does the magnitude of that enhancement differ between young and older adults when assessed during passive heat exposure? What is the main finding and its importance? While seasonal heat acclimatisation enhanced evaporative heat loss (i.e. sweating) in both young and older adults, those improvements led to a greater reduction in body heat storage in older adults. These outcomes indicate that heat acclimatisation may confer greater thermoregulatory benefits with increasing age.

Abstract: Repeated heat exposure throughout summer can enhance heat loss in humans (seasonal heat acclimatisation), although the effect of ageing on those improvements remains unclear. We therefore sought to assess thermoregulatory function in young and older adults during environmental heat exposure prior to and following seasonal heat acclimatisation, hypothesizing that the magnitude of adaptation would be greater in older relative to young adults.

To achieve this, 14 young (19-27 years) and 10 older adults (55-72 years), who resided in a temperate humid-continental climate, completed a 3 h resting heat exposure (44°C, ∼30% relative humidity) in the winter-spring months as part of a larger investigation (pre-acclimatisation), before being re-evaluated using the same heat stress test following the summer months (post-acclimatisation). Whole-body dry and evaporative heat exchange, and metabolic rate were measured throughout using direct and indirect calorimetry (respectively), and used to quantify body heat storage (metabolic rate + dry heat gain – evaporative heat loss). Evaporative heat loss increased in both groups following acclimatisation, but those improvements led to a decrease in body heat storage in older (mean difference (95% CI); 213 (295, 131) kJ; P < 0.001), but not young adults (-25 (-94, 44) kJ; P = 0.458).

Thus, body heat storage was greater in older compared to young adults before (222 (123, 314) kJ; P < 0.001), but not following acclimatisation (34 (-55, 123) kJ; P = 0.433). Although there is a need for larger and more controlled confirmatory studies, our findings indicate that seasonal heat acclimatisation may induce greater thermoregulatory adaptation in older compared to young adults.

Full Text Link:

https://physoc.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1113/EP088728

 

 

Human white-fat thermogenesis: experimental and meta-analytic findings

FAME Lab - Human white-fat thermogenesis: Experimental and meta-analytic findingsDinas PC, Krase A, Nintou E, Georgakopoulos A, Granzotto M, Metaxas M, Karachaliou E, Rossato M, Vettor R, Georgoulias P, S Mayor T, Koutsikos J, Athanasiou K, Ioannou LG, Gkiata P, Carrillo AE, Koutedakis Y, Metsios GS, Jamurtas AZ, Chatziioannou S, Flouris AD. Human white-fat thermogenesis: Experimental and meta-analytic findings. Temperature (Austin). 2020 Jun 5;8(1):39-52. doi: 10.1080/23328940.2020.1769530. PMID: 33553504; PMCID: PMC7849687.

Abstract:

White adipose tissue (WAT) thermogenic activity may play a role in whole-body energy balance and two of its main regulators are thought to be environmental temperature (Tenv) and exercise. Low Tenv may increase uncoupling protein one (UCP1; the main biomarker of thermogenic activity) in WAT to regulate body temperature. On the other hand, exercise may stimulate UCP1 in WAT, which is thought to alter body weight regulation. However, our understanding of the roles (if any) of Tenv and exercise in WAT thermogenic activity remains incomplete. Our aim was to examine the impacts of low Tenv and exercise on WAT thermogenic activity, which may alter energy homeostasis and body weight regulation.

We conducted a series of four experimental studies, supported by two systematic reviews and meta-analyses. We found increased UCP1 mRNA (p = 0.03; but not protein level) in human WAT biopsy samples collected during the cold part of the year, a finding supported by a systematic review and meta-analysis (PROSPERO review protocol: CRD42019120116). Additional clinical trials (NCT04037371; NCT04037410) using Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT) revealed no impact of low Tenv on human WAT thermogenic activity (p > 0.05).

Furthermore, we found no effects of exercise on UCP1 mRNA or protein levels (p > 0.05) in WAT biopsy samples from a human randomized controlled trial (Clinical trial: NCT04039685), a finding supported by systematic review and meta-analytic data (PROSPERO review protocol: CRD42019120213). Taken together, the present experimental and meta-analytic findings of UCP1 and SUVmax, demonstrate that cold and exercise may play insignificant roles in human WAT thermogenic activity.

Abbreviations: WAT:White adipose tissue; Tenv: Environmental temperature; UCP1: Uncoupling protein one; BAT: Brown adipose tissue; BMI:Body mass index; mRNA: Messenger ribonucleic acid; RCT: Randomized controlled trial; WHR: Waist-to-hip ratio; PRISMA: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses; PET/CT: Positron Emission Tomography and Computed Tomography; REE: Resting energy expenditure; 18F-FDG: F18 fludeoxyglucose; VO2peak:Peak oxygen consumption; 1RM: One repetition maximum; SUVmax: Maximum standardized uptake value; Std: Standardized mean difference.

Full Text Link:

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/23328940.2020.1769530

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https://www.famelab.gr/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Human-white-fat-thermogenesis-experimental-and-meta-analytic-findings_2020.pdf

 

 

Direct exposure of the head to solar heat radiation impairs motor-cognitive performance

FAME Lab - Direct exposure of the head to solar heat radiation impairs motor-cognitive performancePiil JF, Christiansen L, Morris NB, Mikkelsen CJ, Ioannou LG, Flouris AD, Lundbye-Jensen J, & Nybo L. Direct exposure of the head to solar heat radiation impairs motor-cognitive performance. Sci Rep 107812 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-64768-w.

Abstract:

Health and performance impairments provoked by thermal stress are societal challenges geographically spreading and intensifying with global warming. Yet, science may be underestimating the true impact, since no study has evaluated effects of sunlight exposure on human brain temperature and function. Accordingly, performance in cognitively dominated and combined motor-cognitive tasks and markers of rising brainstem temperature were evaluated during exposure to simulated sunlight (equal to ~1000 watt/m2).

Acute exposure did not affect any performance measures, whereas prolonged exposure of the head and neck provoked an elevation of the core temperature by 1 °C and significant impairments of cognitively dominated and motor task performances. Importantly, impairments emerged at considerably lower hyperthermia levels compared to previous experiments and to the trials in the presents study without radiant heating of the head. These findings highlight the importance of including the effect of sunlight radiative heating of the head and neck in future scientific evaluations of environmental heat stress impacts and specific protection of the head to minimize detrimental effects.

Full Text Link:

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-64768-w

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https://www.famelab.gr/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Direct-exposure-of-the-head-to-solar-heat-radiation-impairs-motor-cognitive-performance_2020.pdf

 

 

Escalating environmental summer heat exposure — a future threat for the European workforce

FAME Lab - Escalating environmental summer heat exposure — a future threat for the European workforceCasanueva A, Kotlarski S, Fischer AM, Flouris AD, Kjellstrom T, Lemke B, Nybo L, Schwierz C, & Liniger MA. Escalating environmental summer heat exposure—a future threat for the European workforce. Reg Environ Change 2040 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-020-01625-6

Abstract:

Heat exposure constitutes a major threat for European workers, with significant impacts on the workers’ health and productivity. Climate projections over the next decades show a continuous and accelerated warming over Europe together with longer, more intense and more frequent heatwaves on regional and local scales. In this work, we assess the increased risk in future occupational heat stress levels using the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT), an index adopted by the International Standards Organization as regulatory index to measure the heat exposure of working people.

Our results show that, in large parts of Europe, future heat exposure will indeed exceed critical levels for physically active humans far more often than in today’s climate, and labour productivity might be largely reduced in southern Europe. European industries should adapt to the projected changes to prevent major consequences for the workers’ health and to preserve economic productivity.

Full Text Link:

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10113-020-01625-6

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https://www.famelab.gr/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Escalating-environmental-summer-heat-exposure-—-a-future-threat-for-the-European-workforce_2020.pdf

 

 

Type 2 diabetes does not exacerbate body heat storage in older adults during brief, extreme passive heat exposure

FAME Lab - Type 2 diabetes does not exacerbate body heat storage in older adults during brief, extreme passive heat exposure

Poirier MP, Notley SR, Boulay P, Sigal RJ, Friesen BJ, Malcolm J, Flouris AD, Kenny GP. Type 2 diabetes does not exacerbate body heat storage in older adults during brief, extreme passive heat exposure. Temperature (Austin). 2020 Mar 16;7(3):263-269. doi: 10.1080/23328940.2020.1736760. PMID: 33123619; PMCID: PMC7575233.

Abstract:

Aging exacerbates hyperthermia and cardiovascular strain during passive heat exposure, but it remains unclear whether those effects worsen in older adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D). We examined these responses in unacclimatized, physically active, older individuals with (n = 13, mean ± SD age: 60 ± 8 years, HbA1c: 7.0 ± 1.0%) and without (Control, n = 30, 62 ± 6 years) well-controlled T2D during a brief, 3-h passive exposure to extreme heat (44°C, 30% relative humidity). Metabolic heat production, dry heat gain, total heat gain (metabolic heat production + dry heat gain), evaporative heat loss, body heat storage (summation of heat gain/loss), rectal and mean skin temperatures as well as heart rate were measured continuously.

No between-group differences were observed for metabolic heat production (T2D vs. Control; 53 ± 5 vs. 55 ± 7 W/m2), dry heat gain (48 ± 9 vs. 47 ± 11 W/m2), total heat gain (101 ± 10 vs. 102 ± 14 W/m2) and evaporative heat loss (83 ± 10 vs. 85 ± 12 W/m2) over the 3 h (all P > 0.05). Consequently, the changes in body heat storage (380 ± 93 vs. 358 ± 172 kJ, P = 0.67) were similar between groups. Moreover, no between-group differences in rectal and mean skin temperatures or heart rate were measured. We conclude that unacclimatized, physically active, older adults with well-controlled T2D do not experience greater hyperthermia and cardiovascular strain compared to their healthy counterparts while resting in extreme heat for a brief, 3-h period.

Full Text Link:

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/23328940.2020.1736760

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https://www.famelab.gr/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Type-2-diabetes-does-not-exacerbate-body-heat-storage-in-older-adults-during-brief-extreme-passive-heat-exposure_2020.pdf

 

 

Age differences in cardiac autonomic regulation during intermittent exercise in the heat

FAME Lab - Age differences in cardiac autonomic regulation during intermittent exercise in the heatKaltsatou A, Flouris AD, Herry CL, Notley SR, Seely AJE, Beatty HW, Kenny GP. Age differences in cardiac autonomic regulation during intermittent exercise in the heat. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2020 Feb;120(2):453-465. doi: 10.1007/s00421-019-04290-8. Epub 2020 Jan 1. PMID: 31894413.

Abstract:

Purpose: This study aimed to detect potential differences in heart-rate variability (HRV) during a moderate-intensity intermittent exercise in the heat among physically active young (25.8 ± 1.9 years), middle-aged (43.5 ± 2.8 years), and older (62.9 ± 3.7 years) men. Methods: Thirty-three participants (11/group) performed four successive bouts of 15-min cycling at a moderate fixed rate of metabolic heat production of ~ 400 W; each separated by a 15-min recovery with 1 h of final recovery in a hot and dry environment (35 °C, 20% relative humidity). Twelve HRV indices were computed that have been commonly described in the literature, and characterized various domains of the variability and complexity of heart rate.

Results: Cardiac autonomic regulation during intermittent exercise in the heat, as well as during pre-exercise rest and recovery was significantly affected by age, as changes were observed among the three different aged groups in five indices (p ≤ 0.05). Similarly, time influenced cardiac autonomic regulation as three indices showed changes across time (p ≤ 0.05) during intermittent exercise, whilst five indices displayed significant changes (p ≤ 0.05) during rest and recovery in the heat.

Conclusions: This study supports that moderate-intensity intermittent exercise in the heat is associated with significant cardiac autonomic dysregulation in older men, as compared to young and middle-aged men, yet it highlights the importance of developing preventative health strategies for heat-related illness in aged individuals.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31894413/

 

 

Age-related reductions in heart rate variability do not worsen during exposure to humid compared to dry heat: a secondary analysis

FAME Lab - Age-related Reductions in Heart Rate Variability Do Not Worsen During Exposure to Humid Compared to Dry Heat: A Secondary AnalysisCarrillo AE, Flouris AD, Herry CL, Notley SR, Macartney MJ, Seely AJE, Wright Beatty HE, Kenny GP. Age-related reductions in heart rate variability do not worsen during exposure to humid compared to dry heat: A secondary analysis. Temperature (Austin). 2019 Nov 4;6(4):341-345. doi: 10.1080/23328940.2019.1684791. PMID: 31934605; PMCID: PMC6949029.

Abstract: 

We conducted a secondary analysis to investigate whether age-related attenuations in heart rate variability (HRV) worsen during exposure to moderate, dry (36.5°C, 20% RH) or humid (36.5°C, 60% RH) heat conditions that resulted in greater body heat storage among older compared to young participants, and during humid compared to dry heat, regardless of age. Six HRV indices [heart rate (HR), coefficient of variation (CoV), detrended fluctuation analysis: α1, low frequency power, high frequency power, and low/high frequency ratio] were assessed in 10 young (21 ± 3 y) and 9 older (65 ± 5 y) adults for 15-min prior to (baseline), and at the end of a 120-min exposure to dry and humid heat while seated at rest.

Our results demonstrated a condition (dry and humid) x time (baseline and end) interaction effect on HR (p = 0.047) such that HR gradually increased during humid heat exposure yet remained similar during dry heat exposure across groups. We also found an age-related attenuation in CoV at baseline for both the dry (young: 0.097 ± 0.023%; older: 0.054 ± 0.016%) and humid (young: 0.093 ± 0.034%; older: 0.056 ± 0.014%) heat conditions (p < 0.02). Those age-related attenuations in CoV, however, were not magnified throughout the exposure nor different between conditions (p > 0.05). While older adults stored more heat during a brief 120-min exposure to dry heat compared to their young counterparts, this was not paralleled by further age-related impairments in HRV even when body heat storage and cardiovascular strain were exacerbated by exposure to humid heat.

Full Text Link:

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/23328940.2019.1684791

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https://www.famelab.gr/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Age-related-reductions-in-heart-rate-variability-do-not-worsen-during-exposure-to-humid-compared-to-dry-heat-a-secondary-analysis_2019.pdf

 

 

Exercise heat stress in patients with and without type 2 diabetes

FAME Lab - Exercise Heat Stress in Patients With and Without Type 2 DiabetesNotley SR, Poirier MP, Sigal RJ, D’Souza A, Flouris AD, Fujii N, Kenny GP. Exercise Heat Stress in Patients With and Without Type 2 Diabetes. JAMA. 2019 Oct 8;322(14):1409-1411. doi: 10.1001/jama.2019.10943. PMID: 31593261; PMCID: PMC6784783.

Abstract:

Performing exercise in the heat can increase the risk of health complications, especially among middle-aged and older adults who have impaired whole-body heat loss (WBHL) relative to young adults.1 That risk may be higher among patients with type 2 diabetes due to abnormalities in cutaneous vasodilation and sweating, which facilitate WBHL.2 However, repeated brief exercise for 7 days or more during heat exposure (heat acclimation) may mitigate this risk by enhancing WBHL.3 We therefore assessed whether type 2 diabetes impairs heat loss in physically active middle-aged and older adults during exercise heat stress and whether heat acclimation could offset any impairment.

Full Text Link:

https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2752455

 

 

Interaction between indoor occupational heat stress and environmental temperature elevations during heat waves

FAME Lab - Interaction between Indoor Occupational Heat Stress and Environmental Temperature Elevations during Heat WavesCiuha U, Pogačar T, Bogataj LK, Gliha M, Nybo L, Flouris AD, & Mekjavic IB (2019). Interaction between Indoor Occupational Heat Stress and Environmental Temperature Elevations during Heat Waves, Weather, Climate, and Society11(4), 755-762. Retrieved Mar 30, 2022, from https://journals.ametsoc.org/view/journals/wcas/11/4/wcas-d-19-0024_1.xml

Abstract:

Occupational heat strain is a public health threat, and for outdoor industries there is a direct influence from elevated environmental temperatures during heat waves. However, the impact in indoor settings is more complex as industrial heat production and building architecture become factors of importance. Therefore, this study evaluated effects of heat waves on manufacturing productivity.

Production halls in a manufacturing company were instrumented with 33 dataloggers to track air temperature and humidity. In addition, outdoor thermal conditions collected from a weather station next to the factory and daily productivity evaluated as overall equipment efficiency (OEE) were obtained, with interaction between productivity and thermal conditions analyzed before, during, and after four documented heat waves (average daily air temperature above 24°C on at least three consecutive days).

Outdoor (before: 21.3° ± 4.6°C, during: 25.5° ± 4.3°C, and after: 19.8° ± 3.8°C) and indoor air temperatures (before: 30.4° ± 1.3°C, during: 32.8° ± 1.4°C, and after: 30.1° ± 1.4°C) were significantly elevated during the heat waves (p < 0.05). OEE was not different during the heat waves when compared with control, pre-heat-wave, and post-heat-wave OEE. Reduced OEE was observed in 3-day periods following the second and fourth heat wave (p < 0.05).

Indoor workers in settings with high industrial heat production are exposed to a significant thermal stress that may increase during heat waves, but the impact on productivity cannot be directly derived from outdoor factors. The significant decline in productivity immediately following two of the documented heat waves could relate to a cumulative effect of the thermal strain experienced during work combined with high heat stress in the recovery time between work shifts.

Full Text Link:

https://journals.ametsoc.org/view/journals/wcas/11/4/wcas-d-19-0024_1.xml

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https://www.famelab.gr/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Interaction-between-indoor-occupational-heat-stress-and-environmental-temperature-elevations-during-heat-waves_2019.pdf

 

 

An occupational heat–health warning system for Europe: the HEAT-SHIELD platform

An occupational heat–health warning system for Europe: the HEAT-SHIELD platformMorabito M, Messeri A, Noti P, Casanueva A, Crisci A, Kotlarski S, Orlandini S, Schwierz C, Spirig C, Kingma BRM, Flouris AD, Nybo L. An Occupational Heat–Health Warning System for Europe: The HEAT-SHIELD Platform. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 2890. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16162890

Abstract: 

Existing heat–health warning systems focus on warning vulnerable groups in order to reduce mortality. However, human health and performance are affected at much lower environmental heat strain levels than those directly associated with higher mortality. Moreover, workers are at elevated health risks when exposed to prolonged heat. This study describes the multilingual “HEAT-SHIELD occupational warning system” platform (https://heatshield.zonalab.it/) operating for Europe and developed within the framework of the HEAT-SHIELD project. This system is based on probabilistic medium-range forecasts calibrated on approximately 1800 meteorological stations in Europe and provides the ensemble forecast of the daily maximum heat stress.

The platform provides a non-customized output represented by a map showing the weekly maximum probability of exceeding a specific heat stress condition, for each of the four upcoming weeks. Customized output allows the forecast of the personalized local heat-stress-risk based on workers’ physical, clothing and behavioral characteristics and the work environment (outdoors in the sun or shade), also taking into account heat acclimatization. Personal daily heat stress risk levels and behavioral suggestions (hydration and work breaks recommended) to be taken into consideration in the short term (5 days) are provided together with long-term heat risk forecasts (up to 46 days), all which are useful for planning work activities. The HEAT-SHIELD platform provides adaptation strategies for “managing” the impact of global warming.

Full Text Link:

https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/16/16/2890/htm

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https://www.famelab.gr/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Occupational-heat–health-warning-system-for-Europe-the-HEAT-SHIELD-platform_2019.pdf

 

 

Towards model-based online monitoring of cyclist’s head thermal comfort: Smart Helmet concept and prototype

FAME Lab - Towards Model-Based Online Monitoring of Cyclist’s Head Thermal Comfort: Smart Helmet Concept and PrototypeYoussef A, Colon J, Mantzios K, Gkiata  P, Sotto Mayor T, Flouris AD, Bruyne G, Aerts JM (2019). Towards Model-Based Online Monitoring of Cyclist’s Head Thermal Comfort: Smart Helmet Concept and Prototype. Applied Sciences. 9. 3170. 10.3390/app9153170.

Abstract:

Bicyclists can be subjected to crashes, which can cause injuries over the whole body, especially the head. Head injuries can be prevented by wearing bicycle helmets; however, bicycle helmets are frequently not worn due to a variety of reasons. One of the most common complaints about wearing bicycle helmets relates to thermal discomfort. So far, insufficient attention has been given to the thermal performance of helmets.

This paper aimed to introduce and develop an adaptive model for the online monitoring of head thermal comfort based on easily measured variables, which can be measured continuously using impeded sensors in the helmet. During the course of this work, 22 participants in total were subjected to different levels of environmental conditions (air temperature, air velocity, mechanical work and helmet thermal resistance) to develop a general model to predict head thermal comfort.

A reduced-order general linear regression model with three input variables, namely, temperature difference between ambient temperature and average under-helmet temperature, cyclist’s heart rate and the interaction between ambient temperature and helmet thermal resistance, was the most suitable to predict the cyclist’s head thermal comfort and showed maximum mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of 8.4%.

Based on the selected model variables, a smart helmet prototype (SmartHelmet) was developed using impeded sensing technology, which was used to validate the developed general model. Finally, we introduced a framework of calculation for an adaptive personalised model to predict head thermal comfort based on streaming data from the SmartHelmet prototype.

Full Text Link:

https://www.mdpi.com/2076-3417/9/15/3170/htm

 

 

Overview of existing heat-Health warning systems in Europe

Overview of existing heat-Health warning systems in Europe - International Journal of Environmental Research and Public HealthCasanueva A, Burgstall A, Kotlarski S, Messeri A, Morabito M, Flouris AD, Nybo L, Spirig C, Schwierz C. Overview of Existing Heat-Health Warning Systems in Europe. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Jul 25;16(15):2657. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16152657. PMID: 31349585; PMCID: PMC6695887.

Abstract:

The frequency of extreme heat events, such as the summer of 2003 in Europe, and their corresponding consequences for human beings are expected to increase under a warmer climate. The joint collaboration of institutional agencies and multidisciplinary approaches is essential for a successful development of heat-health warning systems and action plans which can reduce the impacts of extreme heat on the population. The present work constitutes a state-of-the-art review of 16 European heat-health warning systems and heat-health action plans, based on the existing literature, web search (over the National Meteorological Services websites) and questionnaires.

The aim of this study is to pave the way for future heat-health warning systems, such as the one currently under development in the framework of the Horizon 2020 HEAT-SHIELD project. Some aspects are highlighted among the variety of examined European warning systems. The meteorological variables that trigger the warnings should present a clear link with the impact under consideration and should be chosen depending on the purpose and target of the warnings. Setting long-term planning actions as well as pre-alert levels might prevent and reduce damages due to heat. Finally, education and communication are key elements of the success of a warning system.

Full Text Link:

https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/16/15/2657/htm

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https://www.famelab.gr/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Overview-of-existing-heat-Health-warning-systems-in-Europe_2019.pdf

 

 

Revisiting the influence of individual factors on heat exchange during exercise in dry heat using direct calorimetry

FAME Lab - Revisiting the influence of individual factors on heat exchange during exercise in dry heat using direct calorimetryNotley SR, Lamarche DT, Meade RD, Flouris AD, Kenny GP. Revisiting the influence of individual factors on heat exchange during exercise in dry heat using direct calorimetry. Exp Physiol. 2019 Jul;104(7):1038-1050. doi: 10.1113/EP087666. Epub 2019 May 6. PMID: 30997941.

Abstract:

Numerous individual factors (e.g. fitness, sex, body morphology) are known to independently modulate heat exchange during exercise in the heat. However, in our view, the individual factor(s) making the greatest contribution to the variation in heat exchange among men and women remains poorly understood, despite several studies. We therefore sought to revisit this question by assessing whole-body dry and evaporative heat exchange using direct calorimetry in a heterogeneous sample of 100 young men (n = 57) and women (n = 43).

Participants performed three 30 min bouts of cycling at very light (men/women; 300/250 W), light (400/325 W) and moderate (500/400 W) metabolic heat production rates, separated by a 15 min recovery, in dry heat (40°C, ∼12% relative humidity). Positive associations were observed between the evaporative heat loss requirement (metabolic heat production ± dry heat exchange) and evaporative heat loss (all P < 0.01), especially during moderate exercise (men, r = 0.62; women, r = 0.82), which explained 19–67% of individual variation. Peak aerobic power (in millilitres per kilogram per minute) was also positively related to evaporative heat loss in both sexes, albeit only during light and moderate exercise (r = 0.33–0.43; all P < 0.05), explaining a further 5–9% of individual variation.

Dry heat exchange shared negative associations with body mass and surface area during all exercise bouts in both sexes (r = −0.29 to −0.55; all P < 0.05), explaining 9–30% of individual variation. We therefore demonstrate that the evaporative heat loss requirement, peak aerobic power and body morphology are the greatest contributors to the variation in whole-body heat exchange among young men and women exercising in dry heat, with the strength of those relationships being heat-load dependent.

Full Text Link:

https://physoc.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1113/EP087666

 

 

Heart rate variability dynamics during treatment for exertional heat strain when immediate response is not possible

FAME Lab - Heart Rate Variability Dynamics During Treatment for Exertional Heat Strain When Immediate Response Is Not PossibleFlouris AD, Friesen BJ, Herry CL, Seely AJE, Notley SR, Kenny GP. Heart rate variability dynamics during treatment for exertional heat strain when immediate response is not possible. Exp Physiol. 2019 Jun;104(6):845-854. doi: 10.1113/EP087297. Epub 2019 Apr 19. PMID: 30932277.

Abstract:

New findings: What is the central question of this study? Does a delay in cold water immersion treatment affect the cardiac autonomic control of exertionally heat-strained individuals? What is the main finding and its importance? Cold water immersion is effective for treating exertionally heat-strained individuals even when treatment is commenced with a significant delay. However, that treatment delay leads to only partial/transient restoration of cardiac autonomic control. Therefore, we recommend that exertional heatstroke patients are continuously monitored for several hours even after core temperature has returned to normal values.

Abstract: Immediate cold water immersion (CWI) is the gold-standard treatment for exertional heatstroke. In the field, however, treatment is often delayed, primarily owing to a delayed paramedic response and/or inaccurate diagnosis. We examined the effect of treatment (reduction of rectal temperature to 37.5°C) delays of 5 (short), 20 (moderate) and 40 (prolonged) min on cardiac autonomic control [as assessed via heart rate variability (HRV)] in eight exertionally heat-strained (40.0°C rectal temperature) individuals. Eleven HRV indices were computed that have been described commonly in the literature and characterize almost all known domains of the variability and complexity of the cardiopulmonary system.

We found that the cardiac autonomic control (as assessed via HRV) of exertionally heat-strained individuals was significantly affected by the amount of time it took for the CWI treatment to be applied. Six out of 11 HRV indices studied, from all variability domains, displayed strong (P ≤ 0.005) time × delay interaction effects. Moreover, the number of significantly (P ≤ 0.005) abnormal (i.e. different from the short delay) HRV indices more than doubled (seven versus 15) from the moderate delay to the prolonged delay.

Finally, our results demonstrated that a CWI treatment applied with delays of 20 and, primarily, 40 min did not lead to a full restoration of cardiac autonomic control of exertionally heat-strained individuals. In conclusion, this study supports CWI for treating exertionally heat-strained individuals even when applied with prolonged delay, but it highlights the importance of continued cardiac monitoring of patients who have suffered exertional heatstroke for several hours after restoration of core temperature to normal.

Full Text Link:

https://physoc.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1113/EP087297

 

 

Endocrine parameters in association with bone mineral accrual in young female vocational ballet dancers

FAME Lab - Endocrine Parameters in Association With Bone Mineral Accrual in Young Female Vocational Ballet DancersAmorim T, Metsios GS, Flouris AD, Nevill A, Gomes TN, Wyon M, Marques F, Nogueira L, Adubeiro N, Jamurtas AZ, Maia J, Koutedakis Y. Endocrine parameters in association with bone mineral accrual in young female vocational ballet dancers. Arch Osteoporos. 2019 Apr 9;14(1):46. doi: 10.1007/s11657-019-0596-z. PMID: 30968227.

Abstract:

Less is known on bone mass gains in dancers involved in vocational dance training. The present study found that, as young vocational dancers progress on their professional training, their bone health remains consistently lower compared to non-exercising controls. Endocrine mechanisms do not seem to explain these findings.

Purpose: Little is known on bone mass development in dancers involved in vocational training. The aim of the present study was to model bone mineral content (BMC) accruals and to determine whether circulating levels of oestrogens, growth hormone (GH), and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) explain differences in bone mass gains between vocational dance students and matched controls.

Methods: The total of 67 vocational female dancers (VFDs) and 68 aged-matched controls (12.1 ± 1.9 years and 12.7 ± 2.0 years at baseline, respectively) were followed for two consecutive years (34 VFD and 31 controls remained in the study for the full duration). BMC was evaluated annually at impact [femoral neck (FN); lumbar spine (LS)] and non-impact sites (forearm) using DXA. Anthropometry, age at menarche (questionnaire), and hormone serum concentrations (immunoradiometric assays) were also assessed for the same period.

Results: VFD demonstrated consistently reduced body weight (p < 0.001) and BMC at all three anatomical sites (p < 0.001) compared to controls throughout the study period. Menarche, body weight, GH, and IGF-1 were significantly associated with bone mass changes over time (p < 0.05) but did not explain group differences in BMC gains at impact sites (p > 0.05). However, body weight did explain the differences between groups in terms of BMC gains at the forearm (non-impact site). Conclusion: Two consecutive years of vocational dance training revealed that young female dancers demonstrate consistently lower bone mass compared to controls at both impact and non-impact sites. The studied endocrine parameters do not seem to explain group differences in terms of bone mass gains at impact sites.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30968227/

 

 

A free software to predict heat strain according to the ISO 7933:2018

FAME Lab - A Free Software to Predict Heat Strain According to the ISO 7933:2018Ioannou LG, Tsoutsoubi L, Mantzios K, Flouris AD. A free software to predict heat strain according to the ISO 7933:2018. Ind Health. 2019 Nov 29;57(6):711-720. doi: 10.2486/indhealth.2018-0216. Epub 2019 Mar 27. PMID: 30918161; PMCID: PMC6885605.

Abstract:

Our primary objective in this study was to design and implement the FAME Lab PHS Calculator software (PHSFL) (www.famelab.gr/research/downloads), a free tool to calculate the predicted heat strain of an individual based on ISO 7933:2018. Our secondary objective was to optimize the practicality of the PHSFL by incorporating knowledge from other ISO standards and published literature. The third objective of this study was to assess: (i) the criterion-related validity of the PHSFL by comparing its results against those obtained using the original ISO 7933:2018 code; and (ii) the construct validity of the PHSFL by comparing its results against those obtained via field experiments performed in human participants during work in the heat.

Our analysis for criterion validity demonstrates that PHSFL provides valid results within the required computational accuracy, according to Annex F of ISO 7933:2018. The construct validity showed that root mean square errors (RMSE) and 95% limits of agreement (LOA) were minimal between measured and predicted core temperature (RMSE: 0.3°C; LOA: 0.06 ± 0.58°C) and small between measured and predicted mean skin temperature (RMSE: 1.1°C; LOA: 0.59 ± 1.83°C). In conclusion, the PHSFL software demonstrated strong criterion-related and construct-related validity.

Full Text Link:

https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/indhealth/57/6/57_2018-0216/_article

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https://www.famelab.gr/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/A-free-software-to-predict-heat-strain-according-to-the-ISO-7933-2018_2019.pdf

 

 

Occupational heat stress management: does one size fit all?

FAME Lab - Occupational heat stress management: Does one size fit all?Notley SR, Flouris AD, Kenny GP. Occupational heat stress management: Does one size fit all? Am J Ind Med. 2019 Dec;62(12):1017-1023. doi: 10.1002/ajim.22961. Epub 2019 Feb 21. PMID: 30791115.

Abstract:

Heat stress is a deadly occupational hazard that is projected to increase in severity with global warming. While upper limits for heat stress designed to protect all workers have been recommended by occupational safety institutes for some time, heat stress continues to compromise health and productivity. In our view, this is largely explained by the inability of existing guidelines to consider the inter‐individual (age, sex, disease, others) and intra‐individual (medication use, fitness, hydration, others) factors that cause extensive variability in physiological tolerance to a given heat stress.

In conditions that do not exceed the recommended limits, this ‘one size fits all’ approach to heat stress management can lead to reductions in productivity in more heat‐tolerant workers, while compromising safety in less heat‐tolerant workers who may develop heat‐related illness, even in temperate conditions. Herein, we discuss future directions in occupational heat stress management that consider this individual variability.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30791115/

 

 

Heat waves occurrence and outdoor workers’ self-assessment of heat stress in Slovenia and Greece

FAME Lab - Heat Waves Occurrence and Outdoor Workers’ Self-assessment of Heat Stress in Slovenia and GreecePogačar T, Žnidaršič Z, Kajfež Bogataj L, Flouris AD, Poulianiti K, Črepinšek Z. Heat Waves Occurrence and Outdoor Workers’ Self-assessment of Heat Stress in Slovenia and Greece. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Feb 19;16(4):597. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16040597. PMID: 30791365; PMCID: PMC6406360.

Abstract:

Changing patterns of heat waves are part of the global warming effect and the importance of changes is reinforced by their negative impact on society. Firstly, heat waves were analyzed in Brnik (Slovenia) and Larisa (Greece) in the period 1981⁻2017 to reflect the environment which workers are exposed to. Secondly, outdoor workers (70 from Greece, 216 from Slovenia) provided a self-assessment of heat stress. The heat wave timeline is presented as an effective way of illustrating long-term changes in heat waves’ characteristics for various stakeholders.

In both countries, workers assessed as significant the heat stress impact on productivity (Greece 69%, Slovenia 71%; p > 0.05), and in Slovenia also on well-being (74%; p < 0.01). The main experienced symptoms and diseases were thirst (Greece 70%, Slovenia 82%; p = 0.03), excessive sweating (67%, 85%; p = 0.01), exhaustion (51%, 62%; p > 0.05) and headache (44%, 53%; p > 0.05). The most common way to reduce heat stress was drinking more water (Greece 64%, Slovenia 82%; p = 0.001). Among the informed workers, the prevalent source of information was discussions. Therefore, educational campaigns are recommended, together with the testing of the efficiency of mitigation measures that will be proposed on the Heat-Shield project portal.

Full Text Link:

https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/16/4/597/htm

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https://www.famelab.gr/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Heat-waves-occurrence-and-outdoor-workers-self-assessment-of-heat-stress-in-Slovenia-and-Greece_2019.pdf

 

 

Workers’ health and productivity under occupational heat strain: a systematic review and meta-analysis

FAME Lab - Workers’ Health and Productivity Under Occupational Heat Strain: A Systematic Review and Meta-AnalysisFlouris AD, Dinas PC, Ioannou LG, Nybo L, Havenith G, Kenny GP, Kjellstrom T. Workers’ health and productivity under occupational heat strain: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Planet Health. 2018 Dec;2(12):e521-e531. doi: 10.1016/S2542-5196(18)30237-7. PMID: 30526938.

Abstract:

Background: Occupational heat strain (ie, the effect of environmental heat stress on the body) directly threatens workers’ ability to live healthy and productive lives. We estimated the effects of occupational heat strain on workers’ health and productivity outcomes.
Methods: Following PRISMA guidelines for this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched PubMed and Embase from database inception to Feb 5, 2018, for relevant studies in any labour environment and at any level of occupational heat strain. No restrictions on language, workers’ health status, or study design were applied.

Occupational heat strain was defined using international health and safety guidelines and standards. We excluded studies that calculated effects using simulations or statistical models instead of actual measurements, and any grey literature. Risk of bias, data extraction, and sensitivity analysis were performed by two independent investigators. Six random-effects meta-analyses estimated the prevalence of occupational heat strain, kidney disease or acute kidney injury, productivity loss, core temperature, change in urine specific gravity, and odds of occupational heat strain occurring during or at the end of a work shift in heat stress conditions. The review protocol is available on PROSPERO, registration number CRD42017083271.

Findings: Of 958 reports identified through our systematic search, 111 studies done in 30 countries, including 447 million workers from more than 40 different occupations, were eligible for analysis. Our meta-analyses showed that individuals working a single work shift under heat stress (defined as wet-bulb globe temperature beyond 22·0 or 24·8°C depending on work intensity) were 4·01 times (95% CI 2·45-6·58; nine studies with 11 582 workers) more likely to experience occupational heat strain than an individual working in thermoneutral conditions, while their core temperature was increased by 0·7°C (0·4-1·0; 17 studies with 1090 workers) and their urine specific gravity was increased by 14·5% (0·0031, 0·0014-0·0048; 14 studies with 691 workers). During or at the end of a work shift under heat stress, 35% (31-39; 33 studies with 13 088 workers) of workers experienced occupational heat strain, while 30% (21-39; 11 studies with 8076 workers) reported productivity losses.

Finally, 15% (11-19; ten studies with 21 721 workers) of individuals who typically or frequently worked under heat stress (minimum of 6 h per day, 5 days per week, for 2 months of the year) experienced kidney disease or acute kidney injury. Overall, this analysis include a variety of populations, exposures, and occupations to comply with a wider adoption of evidence synthesis, but resulted in large heterogeneity in our meta-analyses. Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation analysis revealed moderate confidence for most results and very low confidence in two cases (average core temperature and change in urine specific gravity) due to studies being funded by industry.

Interpretation: Occupational heat strain has important health and productivity outcomes and should be recognised as a public health problem. Concerted international action is needed to mitigate its effects in light of climate change and the anticipated rise in heat stress.
Funding: EU Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme.

Full Text Link:

https://www.thelancet.com/action/showPdf?pii=S2542-5196%2818%2930237-7

 

 

Impact of pre-cooling therapy on the physical performance and functional capacity of multiple sclerosis patients: a systematic review

FAME Lab - Impact of Pre-Cooling Therapy on the Physical Performance and Functional Capacity of Multiple Sclerosis Patients: A Systematic ReviewKaltsatou A, Flouris AD. Impact of pre-cooling therapy on the physical performance and functional capacity of multiple sclerosis patients: A systematic review. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2019 Jan;27:419-423. doi: 10.1016/j.msard.2018.11.013. Epub 2018 Nov 13. PMID: 30544086.

Abstract:

Patients with multiple sclerosis experience many complications that gradually lead them to comorbidity and disability. Exercise could prevent and ameliorate the symptoms that comorbidity or inactivity generate. However, until recently it was suggested that multiple sclerosis patients should not participate in exercise training programs because these patients are characterized by thermoregulatory failure and the heat stress due to physical work could exacerbate the disease symptoms.

Furthermore, taken into account that 60-80% of the multiple sclerosis patients present adverse clinical symptoms when their body temperature is increased (not only due to physical working but even when immerse in hot water or by exposure to infrared lamps or to the sun), the need for the development of treatment strategies to overcome the thermoregulatory problem in these patients is crucial. Given that pre-cooling has been proposed as an effective method, the aim of this systematic review is to discuss the current knowledge for the effects of cooling therapy on the functional capacity of multiple sclerosis patients.

The relevant literature includes many articles, but only a handful of studies published thus far have used a cooling intervention in multiple sclerosis patients and have examined the effects of pre-cooling on functional capacity. These studies used active cooling methods, namely garments or other material that are cooled by circulating liquid through a tube, as well as passive, cooling methods. Passive cooling methods include passive cooling garments or other material namely garments that have ice or gel packs inside them.

Overall, the results of all the studies analysed in this review demonstrated that pre-cooling therapy can prevent the symptom worsening due to increased body temperature in multiple sclerosis patients without causing adverse effects. Therefore, such strategies could serve as a complimentary therapeutic approach in multiple sclerosis patients.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30544086/

 

 

High prevalence of hypohydration in occupations with heat stress – perspectives for performance in combined cognitive and motor tasks

FAME Lab - High Prevalence of Hypohydration in Occupations With Heat stress-Perspectives for FAME Lab - Performance in Combined Cognitive and Motor TasksPiil JF, Lundbye-Jensen J, Christiansen L, Ioannou L, Tsoutsoubi L, Dallas CN, Mantzios K, Flouris AD, Nybo L. High prevalence of hypohydration in occupations with heat stress-Perspectives for performance in combined cognitive and motor tasks. PLoS One. 2018 Oct 24;13(10):e0205321. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0205321. PMID: 30356308; PMCID: PMC6200230.

Abstract:

Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence of dehydration in occupational settings and contextualize findings to effects on performance in cognitively dominated tasks, simple and complex motor tasks during moderate and high heat stress.

Methods: The study included an occupational part with hydration assessed in five industries across Europe with urine samples collected from 139 workers and analyzed for urine specific gravity. In addition, laboratory experiments included eight male participants completing mild-intensity exercise once with full fluid replacement to maintain euhydration, and once with restricted water intake until the dehydration level corresponded to 2% bodyweight deficit. Following familiarization, euhydration and dehydration sessions were completed on separate days in random order (cross-over design) with assessment of simple motor (target pinch), complex motor (visuo-motor tracking), cognitive (math addition) and combined motor-cognitive (math and pinch) performance at baseline, at 1°C (MOD) and 2°C (HYPER) delta increase in body core temperature.

Results: The field studies revealed that 70% of all workers had urine specific gravity values ≥1.020 corresponding to the urine specific gravity (1.020±0.001) at the end of the laboratory dehydration session. At this hydration level, HYPER was associated with reductions in simple motor task performance by 4±1%, math task by 4±1%, math and pinch by 9±3% and visuo-motor tracking by 16±4% (all P<0.05 compared to baseline), whereas no significant changes were observed when the heat stress was MOD (P>0.05). In the euhydration session, HYPER reduced complex (tracking) motor performance by 10±3% and simple pinch by 3±1% (both P<0.05, compared to baseline), while performance in the two cognitively dominated tasks were unaffected when dehydration was prevented (P>0.05).

Conclusion: Dehydration at levels commonly observed across a range of occupational settings with environmental heat stress aggravates the impact of hyperthermia on performance in tasks relying on combinations of cognitive function and motor response accuracy.

Full Text Link:

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0205321

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https://www.famelab.gr/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/High-prevalence-of-hypohydration-in-occupations-with-heat-stress-–-perspectives-for-performance-in-combined-cognitive-and-motor-tasks_2018.pdf

 

 

The impact of heat waves on mortality among the elderly: a mini systematic review

FAME Lab - The Impact of Heat Waves on Mortality among the Elderly: A Mini Systematic ReviewKaltsatou A, Kenny GP, Flouris AD (2018) The Impact of Heat Waves on Mortality among the Elderly: A Mini Systematic Review. J Geriatr Med Gerontol 4:053. doi.org/10.23937/2469-5858/1510053

Abstract:

The aim of this systematic review was to review the recent literature regarding the effect of heat waves on mortality in elderly adults. A systematic search of the literature, was conducted by two reviewers during March 2018, using three electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus). The PRISMA guidelines were used for the quality assessment of the published studies. The literature search identified a total of 345 articles, while only 24 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this analysis.

Overall, the results from these studies show that, although recent advances in technology allow scientists to predict heat waves, thereby enabling health agencies to alert the public with heat advisories, the number of heat wave-induced deaths remains high. The underlying reasons for these increases in heat-wave-induced mortality remains unclear, highlighting the need for developing evidence-based thresholds for the activation and implementation of actions plans to protect the health of heat-vulnerable elderly populations.

Full Text Link:

https://clinmedjournals.org/articles/jgmg/journal-of-geriatric-medicine-and-gerontology-jgmg-4-053.pdf?jid=jgmg

 

 

Metabolic energy cost of workers in agriculture, construction, manufacturing, tourism, and transportation industries

FAME Lab - Metabolic Energy Cost of Workers in Agriculture, Construction, Manufacturing, Tourism, and Transportation IndustriesPoulianiti KP, Havenith G, Flouris AD. Metabolic energy cost of workers in agriculture, construction, manufacturing, tourism, and transportation industries. Ind Health. 2019 Jun 4;57(3):283-305. doi: 10.2486/indhealth.2018-0075. Epub 2018 Jul 28. PMID: 30058597; PMCID: PMC6546587.

Abstract:

The assessment of energy cost (EC) at the workplace remains a key topic in occupational health due to the ever-increasing prevalence of work-related issues. This review provides a detailed list of EC estimations in jobs/tasks included in tourism, agriculture, construction, manufacturing, and transportation industries. A total of 61 studies evaluated the EC of 1,667 workers while performing a large number of tasks related to each of the aforementioned five industries.

Agriculture includes the most energy-demanding jobs (males: 6.0 ± 2.5 kcal/min; females: 2.9 ± 1.0 kcal/min). Jobs in the construction industry were the 2nd most demanding (males: 4.9 ± 1.6 kcal/min; no data for females). The industry with the 3rd highest EC estimate was manufacturing (males: 3.8 ± 1.1 kcal/min; females: 3.0 ± 1.3 kcal/min). Transportation presented relatively moderate EC estimates (males: 3.1 ± 1.0 kcal/min; no data for females). Tourism jobs demonstrated the lowest EC values (2.5 ± 0.9 kcal/min for males and females).

It is hoped that this information will aid the development of future instruments and guidelines aiming to protect workers’ health, safety, and productivity. Future research should provide updated EC estimates within a wide spectrum of occupational settings taking into account the sex, age, and physiological characteristics of the workers as well as the individual characteristics of each workplace.

Full Text Link:

https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/indhealth/57/3/57_2018-0075/_article

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https://www.famelab.gr/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Metabolic-energy-cost-of-workers-in-agriculture-construction-manufacturing-tourism-and-transportation-industries_2018.pdf

 

 

Genetic variation in Wnt/β-catenin and ER signalling pathways in female and male elite dancers and its associations with low bone mineral density: a cross-section and longitudinal study

FAME Lab - Genetic Variation in Wnt/β-catenin and ER Signalling Pathways in Female and Male Elite Dancers and Its Associations With Low Bone Mineral Density: A Cross-Section and Longitudinal StudyAmorim T, Durães C, Machado JC, Metsios GS, Wyon M, Maia J, Flouris AD, Marques F, Nogueira L, Adubeiro N, Koutedakis Y. Genetic variation in Wnt/β-catenin and ER signalling pathways in female and male elite dancers and its associations with low bone mineral density: a cross-section and longitudinal study. Osteoporos Int. 2018 Oct;29(10):2261-2274. doi: 10.1007/s00198-018-4610-x. Epub 2018 Jul 5. PMID: 29978256.

Abstract:

The association of genetic polymorphisms with low bone mineral density in elite athletes have not been considered previously. The present study found that bone mass phenotypes in elite and pre-elite dancers are related to genetic variants at the Wnt/β-catenin and ER pathways.

Introduction: Some athletes (e.g. gymnasts, dancers, swimmers) are at increased risk for low bone mineral density (BMD) which, if untreated, can lead to osteoporosis. To investigate the association of genetic polymorphisms in the oestrogen receptor (ER) and the Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathways with low BMD in elite and pre-elite dancers (impact sport athletes).

Methods: The study included three phases: (1) 151 elite and pre-elite dancers were screened for the presence of low BMD and traditional osteoporosis risk factors (low body weight, menstrual disturbances, low energy availability); (2) a genetic association study was conducted in 151 elite and pre-elite dancers and age- and sex- controls; (3) serum sclerostin was measured in 101 pre-elite dancers and age- and sex-matched controls within a 3-year period.

Results: Eighty dancers revealed low BMD: 56.3% had at least one traditional osteoporosis risk factor, whereas 28.6% did not display any risk factor (37.2% revealed traditional osteoporosis risk factors, but had normal BMD). Body weight, menstrual disturbances and energy availability did not fully predict bone mass acquisition. Instead, genetic polymorphisms in the ER and Wnt/β-catenin pathways were found to be risk factors for low BMD in elite dancers. Sclerostin was significantly increased in dancers compared to controls during the 3-year follow-up (p < 0.05).
Conclusions: Elite and pre-elite dancers demonstrate high prevalence of low BMD, which is likely related to genetic variants at the Wnt/β-catenin and ER pathways and not to factors usually associated with BMD in athletes (body weight, menstrual disturbances, energy deficiency).

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29978256/

 

 

Cortical and trabecular bone analysis of professional dancers using 3D-DXA: a case-control study

FAME Lab - Cortical and Trabecular Bone Analysis of Professional Dancers Using 3D-DXA: A Case-Control StudyFreitas L, Amorim T, Humbert L, Fonollá R, Flouris AD, Metsios GS, Jamurtas AZ, Koutedakis Y. Cortical and trabecular bone analysis of professional dancers using 3D-DXA: a case-control study. J Sports Sci. 2019 Jan;37(1):82-89. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2018.1483178. Epub 2018 Jun 18. PMID: 29912627.

Abstract:

Given the lack of relevant data, the aim of this study was to examine femur cortical and trabecular bone in female and male professional ballet dancers. 40 professional ballet dancers and 40 sex- and age-matched non-exercising controls volunteered. Femoral bone density was scanned by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. A 3D-DXA software was used to analyse trabecular and cortical bone. Anthropometry, maturation (Tanner staging), menstrual parameters (age at menarche and primary amenorrhea), energy availability and nutritional analysis (3-day record) were also assessed.

Compared to non-exercising participants, dancers exhibited significantly higher volumetric density for integral, cortical and trabecular bone, and thicker cortex at the femur. Ballet dancers demonstrated lower body weight compared to controls (p < 0.01). Female dancers had their menarche later than controls, and the prevalence of primary amenorrhea were significantly higher in dancers than controls (p < 0.01). Dancer’s energy availability was below the normal range (<30 kcal/kgFFM/day). Despite the presence of certain osteoporosis risk factors such as low energy availability, primary amenorrhoea and lower body weight, professional ballet dancers revealed higher bone density for both cortical and trabecular bone compartments compared to controls.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29912627/

 

 

Habitual heat exposure and acclimatization associated with athletic performance in the multistage marathon des Sables

FAME Lab - Habitual Heat Exposure and Acclimatization Associated with Athletic Performance in the Multistage Marathon des Sables Athletic Performance in the Multistage Marathon des Sables-1 Ioannou LG, Tsoutsoubi L, Nybo L, Tsianos GI, Flouris AD. Habitual heat exposure and acclimatization associated with athletic performance in the multistage marathon des sables. Journal of Human Performance in Extreme Environments: Vol. 14 : Iss. 1, Article 9. doi: 10.7771/2327-2937.1107

Abstract:

Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of heat acclimatization on athletic performance during the 7-dayMarathon des Sables (MdS) which takes place in the Sahara Desert.

Methods: Anonymous data for nationality and average running speed (km/h) of all runners who ran the MdS during the period2000–2015 were collected from the official website of the race and other related websites. Average maximum temperature for each runner’s country during the month preceding the MdS was collected from www.weatherbase.com. Athletes were divided into two T origin groups as follows:25to15 ̊C (i.e., cold countries) and 15 to 35 ̊C (i.e., warm countries).

Results: Overall, 12 467 (10 828 men; 1639 women) athletes from 78 countries (37 cold; 41 warm) participated in the MdS during the 16-year study period. The ambient temperature of these countries one month prior to the MdS ranged from24.2 to34.4 ̊C. Athletes’ average running speed during the MdS ranged from 2.9 to 13.4 km/h. Moreover, athletes who originated from warm countries ran the MdS 10.7% faster compared to athletes from cold countries. Conclusion: The natural heat acclimatization achieved by living in warmer countries seems to provide an advantage during the MdS.

Full Text Link:

https://docs.lib.purdue.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1107&context=jhpee

 

 

Effects of aging on performance during the marathon des Sables: focus on athletes aged 53-80 years

FAME Lab - Effects of Aging on Performance during the Marathon Des Sables: Focus on Athletes Aged 53-80 YearsTsoutsoubi L, Ioannou LG, Amorim T, Tsianos GI, Flouris AD (2018) Effects of Aging on Performance during the Marathon Des Sables: Focus on Athletes Aged 53-80 Years. J Geriatr Med Gerontol 4:045. doi.org/10.23937/2469-5858/1510045

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of aging and sex on athletic performance during the 7-day Marathon des Sables (MdS) in the Sahara Desert. Anonymous data for age, sex, and average running speed (km/h) for all the athletes who registered in the MdS during the period 2000-2015 were retrieved from the official website of the race and other endurance websites.

Participants were distributed into the following age groups: 18-22 yrs, 23-27 yrs, 28-32 yrs, 33-37 yrs, 38-42 yrs, 43-47 yrs, 48-52 yrs, 53-57 yrs, 58-62 yrs, 63-67 yrs, and 68-80 yrs. Average running speed (km/h) during the entire race was used to characterize athletic performance. Results showed that the number of participants in the MdS has been steadily increasing from 570 in the year 2000 to 1,329 in the year 2015 (p < 0.001). Men (5.78 ± 1.55 km/h) demonstrate statistically increased performance throughout the MdS compared to women (5.04 ± 1.25 km/h).

Abandonment data show that approximately 6.5% of the athletes do not complete the race. The highest performance in the MdS is achieved by athletes 33-42 years-old (p < 0.05). Athletes competing in the MdS are as old as 80 years and the number of athletes older than 52-years-old is increasing. It is concluded that the highest performance in the MdS is achieved by athletes 33-42 years. Nevertheless, ageing past 42 years is associated with decreased performance. Given the steadily increased participation of athletes aged > 52 years, future studies should investigate the physiological impact of this extreme event on elderly individuals during and following the race.

Full Text Link:

https://clinmedjournals.org/articles/jgmg/journal-of-geriatric-medicine-and-gerontology-jgmg-4-045.pdf?jid=jgmg

 

 

Towards establishing evidence-based guidelines on maximum indoor temperatures during hot weather in temperate continental climates

FAME Lab - Towards establishing evidence-based guidelines on maximum indoor temperatures during hot weather in temperate continental climatesKenny GP, Flouris AD, Yagouti A, Notley SR. Towards establishing evidence-based guidelines on maximum indoor temperatures during hot weather in temperate continental climates. Temperature (Austin). 2018 May 11;6(1):11-36. doi: 10.1080/23328940.2018.1456257. PMID: 30906809; PMCID: PMC6422495.

Abstract:

Rising environmental temperatures represent a major threat to human health. The activation of heat advisories using evidence-based thresholds for high-risk outdoor ambient temperatures have been shown to be an effective strategy to save lives during hot weather. However, although the relationship between weather and human health has been widely defined by outdoor temperature, corresponding increases in indoor temperature during heat events can also be harmful to health especially in vulnerable populations.

In this review, we discuss our current understanding of the relationship between outdoor temperature and human health and examine how human health can also be adversely influenced by high indoor temperatures during heat events. Our assessment of the existing literature revealed a high degree of variability in what can be considered an acceptable indoor temperature because there are differences in how different groups of people may respond physiologically and behaviorally to the same living environment. Finally, we demonstrate that both non-physiological (e.g., geographical location, urban density, building design) and physiological (e.g., sex, age, fitness, state of health) factors must be considered when defining an indoor temperature threshold for preserving human health in a warming global climate.

Full Text Link:

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/23328940.2018.1456257

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https://www.famelab.gr/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Towards-establishing-evidence-based-guidelines-on-maximum-indoor-temperatures-during-hot-weather-in-temperate-continental-climates_2018.pdf

 

 

On the use of wearable physiological monitors to assess heat strain during occupational heat stress

FAME Lab - On the Use of Wearable Physiological Monitors to Assess Heat Strain During Occupational Heat StressNotley SR, Flouris AD, Kenny GP. On the use of wearable physiological monitors to assess heat strain during occupational heat stress. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2018 Sep;43(9):869-881. doi: 10.1139/apnm-2018-0173. Epub 2018 May 4. PMID: 29726698.

Abstract:

Workers in many industries are required to perform arduous work in high heat-stress conditions, which can lead to rapid increases in body temperature that elevate the risk of heat-related illness and even death. Traditionally, effort to mitigate work-related heat injury has been directed toward the assessment of environmental heat stress (e.g., wet-bulb globe temperature), rather than toward the associated physiological strain responses (e.g., heart rate and skin and core temperatures).

However, because a worker’s physiological response to a given heat stress is modified independently by inter-individual factors (e.g., age, sex, chronic disease, others) and intra-individual factors both within (e.g., medication use, fitness, acclimation and hydration state, others) and beyond (e.g., shift duration, illness, others) the worker’s control, it becomes challenging to protect workers on an individual basis from heat-related injury without assessing those physiological responses. Recent advancements in wearable technology have made it possible to monitor one or more physiological indices of heat strain.

Nonetheless, information on the utility of the wearable systems available for assessing occupational heat strain is unavailable. This communication is therefore directed toward identifying the physiological indices of heat strain that may be quantified in the workplace and evaluating the wearable monitoring systems available for assessing those responses. Finally, emphasis is placed on the barriers associated with implementing these devices to assist in mitigating work-related heat injury. This information is fundamental for protecting worker health and could also be utilized to prevent heat illnesses in vulnerable people during leisure or athletic activities.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29726698/

 

 

Age alters cardiac autonomic modulations during and following exercise-induced heat stress in females

FAME Lab - Age Alters Cardiac Autonomic Modulations During and Following Exercise-Induced Heat Stress in FemalesLeicht AS, Flouris AD, Kaltsatou A, Seely AJ, Herry CL, Wright Beatty HE, Kenny GP. Age alters cardiac autonomic modulations during and following exercise-induced heat stress in females. Temperature (Austin). 2018 Mar 15;5(2):184-196. doi: 10.1080/23328940.2018.1432918. PMID: 30377635; PMCID: PMC6204987.

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to examine the effect of natural ageing on heart rate variability during and following exercise-induced heat stress in females.

Eleven young (∼24 years) and 13 older (∼51 years), habitually active females completed an experimental session consisting of baseline rest, moderate intensity intermittent exercise (four 15-min bouts separated by 15-min recovery) and 1-hour of final recovery in a hot and dry (35°C, 20% relative humidity) environment. Respiratory and heart rate recordings were continuously logged with 10-min periods analysed at the end of: baseline rest; each of the exercise and recovery bouts; and during the 1-hour final recovery period.

Comparisons over time during exercise and recovery, and between groups were conducted via two-way repeated-measures ANCOVAs with rest values as the covariate. During baseline rest, older females exhibited lower heart rate variability compared to young females with similar levels of respiration and most (∼71-79%) heart rate variability measures during repeated exercise and recovery. However, older females exhibited heart rate variability metrics suggestive of greater parasympathetic modulation (greater long axis of Poincare plot, cardiac vagal index; lower low-high frequency ratio) during repeated exercise with lower indices during the latter stage of prolonged recovery (less very low frequency component, Largest Lyapunov Exponent; greater cardiac sympathetic index).

The current study documented several unique, age-dependent differences in heart rate variability, independent of respiration, during and following exercise-induced heat stress for females that may assist in the detection of normal heat-induced adaptations as well as individuals vulnerable to heat stress.

Full Text Link:

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/23328940.2018.1432918

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https://www.famelab.gr/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Age-alters-cardiac-autonomic-modulations-during-and-following-exercise-induced-heat-stress-in-females_2018.pdf

 

 

Association of fat mass profile with natriuretic peptide receptor alpha in subcutaneous adipose tissue of medication-free healthy men: a cross-sectional study

FAME Lab - Association of Fat Mass Profile With Natriuretic Peptide Receptor Alpha in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue of Medication-Free Healthy Men: A Cross-Sectional StudyDinas PC, Nintou E, Psychou D, Granzotto M, Rossato M, Vettor R, Jamurtas AZ, Koutedakis Y, Metsios GS, Flouris AD. Association of fat mass profile with natriuretic peptide receptor alpha in subcutaneous adipose tissue of medication-free healthy men: A cross-sectional study. F1000Res. 2018 Mar 15;7:327. doi: 10.12688/f1000research.14198.2. PMID: 30079239; PMCID: PMC6053697.

Abstract:

Background: Atrial natriuretic peptide increases lipolysis in human adipocytes by binding to natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPRA). The aim of the current study was to examine the associations of NPRA mRNA of subcutaneous adipose tissue with fat mass, fat-free mass, body mass index (BMI) and arterial blood pressure in medication-free healthy men.

Method: Thirty-two volunteers [age (years): 36.06±7.36, BMI: 27.60±4.63 (kg/m 2)] underwent assessments of body height/weight, % fat mass, fat-free mass (kg), blood pressure, and a subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsy via a surgical technique.

Results: We found that NPRA mRNA was negatively associated with % fat mass (r=-0.40, R 2=0.16, p=0.03) and BMI (r=-0.45, R 2=0.20, p=0.01). Cohen’s f 2 effect size analyses showed a small effect size between NPRA mRNA and BMI ( f 2 =0.25). One-way analysis of variance with Bonferroni post-hoc tests showed a tendency for mean differences of NPRA mRNA across BMI categories (p=0.06). This was confirmed by Cohen’s d effect size analyses revealing a large effect size of NPRA mRNA between obese individuals (BMI≥30 kg/m 2) and either normal weight (BMI=19-25 kg/m 2; d=0.94) or overweight (BMI=25-30 kg/m 2; d=1.12) individuals.

Conclusions: NPRA mRNA is negatively associated with % fat mass and BMI in medication-free healthy men, suggesting a possible role of NPRA in the control of fat mass accumulation.

Full Text Link:

https://f1000research.com/articles/7-327/v2

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https://www.famelab.gr/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Association-of-fat-mass-profile-with-natriuretic-peptide-receptor-alpha-in-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-of-medication-free-healthy-men-a-cross-sectional-study_2018.pdf

 

 

Physical characteristics cannot be used to predict cooling time using cold-water immersion as a treatment for exertional hyperthermia

FAME Lab - Physical Characteristics Cannot Be Used to Predict Cooling Time Using Cold-Water Immersion as a Treatment for Exertional HyperthermiaPoirier MP, Notley SR, Flouris AD, Kenny GP. Physical characteristics cannot be used to predict cooling time using cold-water immersion as a treatment for exertional hyperthermia. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2018 Aug;43(8):857-860. doi: 10.1139/apnm-2017-0619. Epub 2018 Mar 12. PMID: 29529383.

Abstract:

We examined if physical characteristics could be used to predict cooling time during cold water immersion (CWI, 2 °C) following exertional hyperthermia (rectal temperature ≥39.5 °C) in a physically heterogeneous group of men and women (n = 62). Lean body mass was the only significant predictor of cooling time following CWI (R2 = 0.137; P < 0.001); however, that prediction did not provide the precision (mean residual square error: 3.18 ± 2.28 min) required to act as a safe alternative to rectal temperature measurements.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29529383/

 

 

Links between night-time thermoneutral zone and mortality from circulatory causes in the elderly population of Cyprus

FAME Lab - Links between Night-Time Thermoneutral Zone and Mortality from Circulatory Causes in the Elderly Population of CyprusIoannou LG, Tsoutsoubi L, Amorim T, Samoutis G, Flouris AD (2018) Links between Night- Time Thermoneutral Zone and Mortality from Circulatory Causes in the Elderly Population of Cyprus. J Geriatr Med Gerontol 4:040. doi.org/10.23937/2469-5858/1510040

Abstract:

Background: The relationship between non-thermoneutral zone temperatures with increased mortality in elderly individuals is well established. However, less is known regarding the effect of night-time temperature on mortality in elderly individuals. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between night-time temperature and mortality in elderly people (≥ 70 years) in Cyprus.

Methods: All-cause mortality data covering the period 2004-2014 were retrieved from the Health Monitoring Unit of the Cypriot Ministry of Health. Midnight (00:00) temperature data from weather stations across the island of Cyprus covering the same time period were collected from www.wunderground.com. Night-time temperatures were categorized into six 5-degree Celsius categories (≤ 8 ℃, 9-13 ℃, 14-18 ℃, 19-23 ℃, 24-28 ℃, and ≥ 29 ℃). The 19-23 ℃ category was defined as thermoneutral zone.

Results: A total of 43,107 elderly individuals died during the monitored period and the most prevalent cause of death was “diseases of the circulatory system” (41.5%; p < 0.001). Mortality due to diseases of the circulatory system was significantly reduced when night-time temperature was at the thermoneutral zone during the previous night (p < 0.05). The prevalence of deaths due to circulatory causes was higher for females compared to males (p < 0.001) (Cohen’s d = 0.34). Furthermore, there was higher prevalence of deaths during extreme night time temperatures compared with thermoneutral zone (0.24 ≥ Cohen’s d ≤ 1.01).

Conclusion: Mortality due to circulatory causes, the most prevalent cause of death in Cyprus, is increased when night-time temperature is above or below the thermoneutral zone.

Full Text Link:

https://clinmedjournals.org/articles/jgmg/journal-of-geriatric-medicine-and-gerontology-jgmg-4-040.php?jid=jgmg

 

 

Screening criteria for increased susceptibility to heat stress during work or leisure in hot environments in healthy individuals aged 31-70 years

FAME Lab - Screening Criteria for Increased Susceptibility to Heat Stress During Work or Leisure in Hot Environments in Healthy Individuals Aged 31-70 YearsFlouris AD, McGinn R, Poirier MP, Louie JC, Ioannou LG, Tsoutsoubi L, Sigal RJ, Boulay P, Hardcastle SG, Kenny GP. Screening criteria for increased susceptibility to heat stress during work or leisure in hot environments in healthy individuals aged 31-70 years. Temperature (Austin). 2017 Dec 18;5(1):86-99. doi: 10.1080/23328940.2017.1381800. PMID: 29687046; PMCID: PMC5902215.

Abstract:

Population aging and global warming generate important public health risks, as older adults have increased susceptibility to heat stress (SHS).

We defined and validated sex-specific screening criteria for SHS during work and leisure activities in hot environments in individuals aged 31-70 years using age, anthropometry, and cardiorespiratory fitness. A total of 123 males and 44 females [44 ± 14 years; 22.9 ± 7.4% body fat; 40.3 ± 8.6 peak oxygen uptake (mlO2/kg/min)] participated, separated into the Analysis (n = 111) and Validation (n = 56) groups. Within these groups, participants were categorized into YOUNG (19-30 years; n = 47) and OLDER (31-70 years; n = 120). All participants performed exercise in the heat inside a direct calorimeter. Screening criteria for OLDER participants were defined from the Analysis group and were cross-validated in the Validation group.

Results showed that 30% of OLDER individuals in the Analysis group were screened as SHS positive. A total of 274 statistically valid (p < 0.05) criteria were identified suggesting that OLDER participants were at risk for SHS when demonstrating two or more of the following (males/females): age ≥ 53.0/55.8 years; body mass index ≥29.5/25.7 kg/m2; body fat percentage ≥ 28.8/34.9; body surface area ≤2.0/1.7 m2; peak oxygen uptake ≤48.3/41.4 mlO2/kg fat free mass/min. In the Validation group, McNemar χ2 comparisons confirmed acceptable validity for the developed criteria. We conclude that the developed criteria can effectively screen individuals 31-70 years who are at risk for SHS during work and leisure activities in hot environments and can provide simple and effective means to mitigate the public health risks caused by heat exposure.

Full Text Link:

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/23328940.2017.1381800

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https://www.famelab.gr/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Screening-criteria-for-increased-susceptibility-to-heat-stress-during-work-or-leisure-in-hot-environments-in-healthy-individuals-aged-31-70-years_2017.pdf

 

 

Beat the heat: effects of a motivational self-talk intervention on endurance performance

FAME Lab - Beat the Heat: Effects of a Motivational Self-Talk Intervention on Endurance PerformanceHatzigeorgiadis A, Bartura K, Argiropoulos C, Comoutos N, Galanis E & Flouris AD (2018). Beat the Heat: Effects of a Motivational Self-Talk Intervention on Endurance Performance, Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 30:4, 388-401, DOI: 10.1080/10413200.2017.1395930

Abstract:

The study examined the effects of a motivational self-talk intervention on endurance cycling performance in hot conditions. Participants were 16 physically active adult men. After a baseline VO2 peak assessment and two training sessions, participants completed a 30 min cycling trial in a hot environment (35°C, 45% relative humidity) while maintaining a steady rate of perceived exertion. Participants of the intervention group produced greater power output during the final third of the trial. Findings suggest that the self-talk strategy seems to have compromised the aversive effects of the demanding environmental conditions and provide support for the psychobiological model of endurance performance.

Full Text Link:

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/10413200.2017.1395930?needAccess=true

 

 

Aging impairs whole-body heat loss in women under both dry and humid heat stress

FAME Lab - Aging Impairs Whole-Body Heat Loss in Women Under Both Dry and Humid Heat StressNotley SR, Poirier MP, Hardcastle SG, Flouris AD, Boulay P, Sigal RJ, Kenny GP. Aging Impairs Whole-Body Heat Loss in Women under Both Dry and Humid Heat Stress, Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: November 2017 – Volume 49 – Issue 11 – p 2324-2332 doi: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000001342

Abstract:

Purpose: This study was designed to determine whether age-related impairments in whole-body heat loss, which are known to exist in dry heat, also occur in humid heat in women.

Methods: To evaluate this possibility, 10 young (25 ± 4 yr) and 10 older (51 ± 7 yr) women matched for body surface area (young, 1.69 ± 0.11; older, 1.76 ± 0.14 m, P = 0.21) and peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak) (young, 38.6 ± 4.6; older, 34.8 ± 6.6 mL·kg·min, P = 0.15) performed four 15-min bouts of cycling at a fixed metabolic heat production rate (300 W; equivalent to ~45% V˙O2peak), each separated by a 15-min recovery, in dry (35°C, 20% relative humidity) and humid heat (35°C, 60% relative humidity). Total heat loss (evaporative ± dry heat exchange) and metabolic heat production were measured using direct and indirect calorimetry, respectively. Body heat storage was measured as the temporal summation of heat production and loss.

Results: Total heat loss was lower in humid conditions compared with dry conditions during all exercise bouts in both groups (all P < 0.05), resulting in 49% and 39% greater body heat storage in young and older women, respectively (both P < 0.01). Total heat loss was also lower in older women compared with young women during exercise bouts 1, 2 and 3 in dry heat (all P < 0.05) and bouts 1 and 2 in humid heat (both P < 0.05). Consequently, body heat storage was 29% and 16% greater in older women compared with young women in dry and humid conditions, respectively (both P < 0.05).

Conclusions: Increasing ambient humidity reduces heat loss capacity in young and older women. However, older women display impaired heat loss relative to young women in both dry and humid heat, and may therefore be at greater risk of heat-related injury during light-to-moderate activity.

Full Text Link:

https://journals.lww.com/acsm-msse/Fulltext/2017/11000/Aging_Impairs_Whole_Body_Heat_Loss_in_Women_under.22.aspx

 

 

Bone mineral density in vocational and professional ballet dancers

FAME Lab - Bone mineral density in vocational and professional ballet dancersAmorim T, Koutedakis Y, Nevill A, Wyon M, Maia J, Machado JC, Marques F, Metsios GS, Flouris AD, Adubeiro N, Nogueira L, Dimitriou L. Bone mineral density in vocational and professional ballet dancers. Osteoporos Int. 2017 Oct;28(10):2903-2912. doi: 10.1007/s00198-017-4130-0. Epub 2017 Jun 27. PMID: 28656365.

Abstract:

According to existing literature, bone health in ballet dancers is controversial. We have verified that, compared to controls, young female and male vocational ballet dancers have lower bone mineral density (BMD) at both impact and non-impact sites, whereas female professional ballet dancers have lower BMD only at non-impact sites.

Introduction: The aims of this study were to (a) assess bone mineral density (BMD) in vocational (VBD) and professional (PBD) ballet dancers and (b) investigate its association with body mass (BM), fat mass (FM), lean mass (LM), maturation and menarche.

Methods: The total of 152 VBD (13 ± 2.3 years; 112 girls, 40 boys) and 96 controls (14 ± 2.1 years; 56 girls, 40 boys) and 184 PBD (28 ± 8.5 years; 129 females, 55 males) and 160 controls (27 ± 9.5 years; 110 female, 50 males) were assessed at the lumbar spine (LS), femoral neck (FN), forearm and total body by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Maturation and menarche were assessed via questionnaires.

Results: VBD revealed lower unadjusted BMD at all anatomical sites compared to controls (p < 0.001); following adjustments for Tanner stage and gynaecological age, female VBD showed similar BMD values at impact sites. However, no factors were found to explain the lower adjusted BMD values in VBD (female and male) at the forearm (non-impact site), nor for the lower adjusted BMD values in male VBD at the FN. Compared to controls, female PBD showed higher unadjusted and adjusted BMD for potential associated factors at the FN (impact site) (p < 0.001) and lower adjusted at the forearm (p < 0.001). Male PBD did not reveal lower BMD than controls at any site.

Conclusions: Both females and males VBD have lower BMD at impact and non-impact sites compared to control, whereas this is only the case at non-impact site in female PBD. Maturation seems to explain the lower BMD at impact sites in female VBD.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28656365/

 

 

A technique for subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue biopsy via a non-diathermy method

FAME Lab - A Technique for Subcutaneous Abdominal Adipose Tissue Biopsy via a Non-diathermy MethodChachopoulos V, Dinas PC, Chasioti M, Jamurtas AΖ, Koutedakis Y, Flouris AD. A Technique for Subcutaneous Abdominal Adipose Tissue Biopsy via a Non-diathermy Method. J Vis Exp. 2017 Sep 30;(127):55593. doi: 10.3791/55593. PMID: 28994752; PMCID: PMC5752356.

Abstract:

Adipose tissue biopsies offer tissue samples that, upon analysis, may provide insightful overviews of mechanisms relating to metabolism and disease. To obtain subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies in the abdominal area, researchers and physicians use either a surgical or a needle-based technique. However, surgical subcutaneous fat biopsies can offer tissue samples that may provide a more comprehensive overview of the complexities of biological indices in white adipose tissue. Usually, a surgical adipose tissue biopsy includes a diathermy treatment for cauterizing blood vessels to prevent excessive bleeding. Nevertheless, side effects, such as flash fires and skin lesions in the tissue, have been reported after diathermy.

Therefore, we aimed to standardize a surgical abdominal adipose tissue biopsy performed under local anesthesia using a non-diathermy method. We conducted 115 subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies in healthy men using a non-diathermy abdominal surgical biopsy method. Our results showed three cases of excessive post-operation bleeding out of 115 operations (2.61%).In conclusion, our standardized subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue surgical biopsy using a non-diathermy method can be safely applied to healthy men at the bedside, with minimal side effects.

Full Text Link:

https://www.jove.com/t/55593/a-technique-for-subcutaneous-abdominal-adipose-tissue-biopsy-via-non

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https://www.famelab.gr/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/A-technique-for-subcutaneous-abdominal-adipose-tissue-biopsy-via-a-non-diathermy-method_2017.pdf

 

 

The recommended threshold limit values for heat exposure fail to maintain body core temperature within safe limits in older working adults

FAME Lab - The recommended Threshold Limit Values for heat exposure fail to maintain body core temperature within safe limits in older working adultsLamarche DT, Meade RD, D’Souza AW, Flouris AD, Hardcastle SG, Sigal RJ, Boulay P, Kenny GP. The recommended Threshold Limit Values for heat exposure fail to maintain body core temperature within safe limits in older working adults. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2017 Sep;14(9):703-711. doi: 10.1080/15459624.2017.1321844. PMID: 28609164.

Abstract:

Purpose: The American Conference of Governmental and Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH®) Threshold Limit Values (TLV® guidelines) for work in the heat consist of work-rest (WR) allocations designed to ensure a stable core temperature that does not exceed 38°C. However, the TLV® guidelines have not been validated in older workers. This is an important shortcoming given that adults as young as 40 years demonstrate impairments in their ability to dissipate heat. We therefore evaluated body temperature responses in older adults during work performed in accordance to the TLV® recommended guidelines.

Methods: On three occasions, 9 healthy older (58 ± 5 years) males performed a 120-min work-simulated protocol in accordance with the TLV® guidelines for moderate-to-heavy intensity work (360 W fixed rate of heat production) in different wet-bulb globe temperatures (WBGT). The first was 120 min of continuous (CON) cycling at 28.0°C WBGT (CON[28°C]). The other two protocols were 15-min intermittent work bouts performed with different WR cycles and WBGT: (i) WR of 3:1 at 29.0°C (WR3:1[29°C]) and (ii) WR of 1:1 at 30.0°C (WR1:1[30°C]). Rectal temperature was measured continuously. The rate of change in mean body temperature was determined via thermometry (weighting coefficients: rectal, 0.9; mean skin temperature, 0.1) and direct calorimetry.

Results: Rectal temperature exceeded 38°C in all participants in CON[28°C] and WR3:1[29°C] whereas a statistically similar proportion of workers exceeded 38°C in WR1:1[30°C] (χ2; P = 0.32). The average time for rectal temperature to reach 38°C was: CON[28°C], 53 ± 7; WR3:1[29°C], 79 ± 11; and WR1:1[30°C], 100 ± 29 min. Finally, while a stable mean body temperature was not achieved in any work condition as measured by thermometry (i.e., >0°C·min-1; all P<0.01), heat balance as determined by direct calorimetry was achieved in WR3:1[29°C] and WR1:1[30°C] (both P ≥ 0.08).

Conclusion: Our findings indicate that the TLV® guidelines do not prevent body core temperature from exceeding 38°C in older workers. Furthermore, a stable core temperature was not achieved within safe limits (i.e., ≤38°C) indicating that the TLV® guidelines may not adequately protect all individuals during work in hot conditions.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28609164/

 

 

Increasing age is a major risk factor for susceptibility to heat stress during physical activity

FAME Lab - Increasing Age Is a Major Risk Factor for Susceptibility to Heat Stress During Physical Activity McGinn R, Poirier MP, Louie JC, Sigal RJ, Boulay P, Flouris AD, and Kenny GP. Increasing age is a major risk factor for susceptibility to heat stress during physical activity. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism. 42(11): 1232-1235. https://doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2017-0322.

Abstract:

We evaluated the extent to which age, cardiorespiratory fitness, and body fat can independently determine whole-body heat loss (WBHL) in 87 otherwise healthy adults. We show that increasing age is a major predictor for decreasing WBHL in otherwise healthy adults (aged 20-70 years), accounting for 40% of the variation in the largest study to date. While greater body fat also had a minor detrimental impact on WBHL, there was no significant role for cardiorespiratory fitness.

Full Text Link:

https://cdnsciencepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1139/apnm-2017-0322

 

 

Time-motion analysis as a novel approach for evaluating the impact of environmental heat exposure on labor loss in agriculture workers

FAME Lab - Time-motion Analysis as a Novel Approach for Evaluating the Impact of Environmental Heat Exposure on Labor Loss in Agriculture WorkersIoannou LG, Tsoutsoubi L, Samoutis G, Bogataj LK, Kenny GP, Nybo L, Kjellstrom T, Flouris AD. Time-motion analysis as a novel approach for evaluating the impact of environmental heat exposure on labor loss in agriculture workers. Temperature (Austin). 2017 Jul 12;4(3):330-340. doi: 10.1080/23328940.2017.1338210. PMID: 28944274; PMCID: PMC5605156.

Abstract:

Introduction: In this study we (i) introduced time-motion analysis for assessing the impact of workplace heat on the work shift time spent doing labor (WTL) of grape-picking workers, (ii) examined whether seasonal environmental differences can influence their WTL, and (iii) investigated whether their WTL can be assessed by monitoring productivity or the vineyard manager’s estimate of WTL.

Methods: Seven grape-picking workers were assessed during the summer and/or autumn via video throughout four work shifts.

Results: Air temperature (26.8 ± 4.8°C), wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT; 25.2 ± 4.1°C), universal thermal climate index (UTCI; 35.2 ± 6.7°C), and solar radiation (719.1 ± 187.5 W/m2) were associated with changes in mean skin temperature (1.7 ± 1.8°C) (p < 0.05). Time-motion analysis showed that 12.4% (summer 15.3% vs. autumn 10.0%; p < 0.001) of total work shift time was spent on irregular breaks (WTB). There was a 0.8%, 0.8%, 0.6%, and 2.1% increase in hourly WTB for every degree Celsius increase in temperature, WBGT, UTCI, and mean skin temperature, respectively (p < 0.01). Seasonal changes in UTCI explained 64.0% of the seasonal changes in WTL (p = 0.017). Productivity explained 36.6% of the variance in WTL (p < 0.001), while the vineyard manager’s WTL estimate was too optimistic (p < 0.001) and explained only 2.8% of the variance in the true WTL (p = 0.456).

Conclusion: Time-motion analysis accurately assesses WTL, evaluating every second spent by each worker during every work shift. The studied grape-picking workers experienced increased workplace heat, leading to significant labor loss. Monitoring productivity or the vineyard manager’s estimate of each worker’s WTL did not completely reflect the true WTL in these grape-picking workers.

Full Text Link:

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/23328940.2017.1338210

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https://www.famelab.gr/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Time-motion-analysis-as-a-novel-approach-for-evaluating-the-impact-of-environmental-heat-exposure-on-labor-loss-in-agriculture-workers_2017.pdf

 

 

Bone mass of female dance students prior to professional dance training: a cross-sectional study

FAME Lab - Bone mass of female dance students prior to professional dance training: A cross-sectional study Amorim T, Metsios GS, Wyon M, Nevill AM, Flouris AD, Maia J, Teixeira E, Machado JC, Marques F, Koutedakis Y. Bone mass of female dance students prior to professional dance training: A cross-sectional study. PLoS One. 2017 Jul 5;12(7):e0180639. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0180639. PMID: 28678833; PMCID: PMC5498074.

Abstract:

Background: Professional dancers are at risk of developing low bone mineral density (BMD). However, whether low BMD phenotypes already exist in pre-vocational dance students is relatively unknown. Aim: To cross-sectionally assess bone mass parameters in female dance students selected for professional dance training (first year vocational dance students) in relation to aged- and sex-matched controls.

Methods: 34 female selected for professional dance training (10.9yrs ±0.7) and 30 controls (11.1yrs ±0.5) were examined. Anthropometry, pubertal development (Tanner) and dietary data (3-day food diary) were recorded. BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) at forearm, femur neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) were assessed using Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry. Volumetric densities were estimated by calculating bone mineral apparent density (BMAD).

Results: Dancers were mainly at Tanner pubertal stage I (vs. stage IV in controls, p<0.001), and demonstrated significantly lower body weight (p<0.001) and height (p<0.01) than controls. Calorie intake was not different between groups, but calcium intake was significantly greater in dancers (p<0.05). Dancers revealed a significantly lower BMC and BMD values at all anatomical sites (p<0.001), and significantly lower BMAD values at the LS and FN (p<0.001). When adjusted for covariates (body weight, height, pubertal development and calcium intake), dance students continued to display a significantly lower BMD and BMAD at the FN (p<0.05; p<0.001) at the forearm (p<0.01).

Conclusion: Before undergoing professional dance training, first year vocational dance students demonstrated inferior bone mass compared to controls. Longitudinal models are required to assess how bone health-status changes with time throughout professional training.

Full Text Link:

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0180639

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https://www.famelab.gr/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Bone-mass-of-female-dance-students-prior-to-professional-dance-training-a-cross-sectional-study_2017.pdf

 

 

Browning formation markers of subcutaneous adipose tissue in relation to resting energy expenditure, physical activity and diet in humans

FAME Lab - Browning formation markers of subcutaneous adipose tissue in relation to resting energy expenditure, physical activity and diet in humansDinas PC, Valente A, Granzotto M, Rossato M, Vettor R, Zacharopoulou A, Carrillo AE, Davies NA, Gkiata P, Jamurtas AZ, Koutedakis Y, Metsios GS, Flouris AD. Browning formation markers of subcutaneous adipose tissue in relation to resting energy expenditure, physical activity and diet in humans. Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig. 2017 Jul 5;31(1):/j/hmbci.2017.31.issue-1/hmbci-2017-0008/hmbci-2017-0008.xml. doi: 10.1515/hmbci-2017-0008. PMID: 28678735.

Abstract:

Background: Regular exercise and diet may contribute to white adipose tissue (WAT) conversion into a brown adipose-like phenotype that may increase resting energy expenditure (REE), leading to weight loss. We examined the relationship between REE, physical activity (PA) participation and diet with browning formation markers of subcutaneous WAT in healthy men. Materials and methods We assessed REE, diet and body composition of 32 healthy men [age (years): 36.06 ± 7.36, body mass index (BMI): 27.06 ± 4.62 (kg/m2)]. Participants also underwent measurements of PA [metabolic equivalent (MET)-min/week] using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), while they undertook a subcutaneous fat biopsy from the abdominal region to assess the mRNA expressions of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ).

Results: We found no associations between the UCP1, PGC-1α, PPARα and PPARγ mRNAs with REE, PA levels and diet (p > 0.05). However, the PGC-1α, PPARα and PPARγ mRNAs were more expressed in individuals displaying moderate rather than low PA levels (p < 0.05). Furthermore, PGC-1α, PPARα and PPARγ mRNAs were negatively correlated with fat mass percentage (p < 0.05). PGC-1α and PPARα mRNAs were also negatively correlated with BMI, while PGC-1α mRNA was inversely associated with waist-to-hip ratio (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: REE, PA levels and diet are not associated with browning formation indices of subcutaneous adipose tissue in healthy adult men.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28678735/

 

 

Association between extreme cold weather temperatures and mortality in Greece

FAME Lab - Association between Extreme Cold Weather Temperatures and Mortality in GreeceAmorim T, Ioannou LG, Spapi F, Flouris AD (2017) Association between Extreme Cold Weather Temperatures and Mortality in Greece. J Geriatr Med Gerontol 3:029. doi.org/10.23937/2469-5858/1510029.

Abstract:

Background: Little is known about cold-related mortality in south Europe. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between extreme cold weather and mortality in Greece.

Methods: Daily mortality data covering the period 1999-2012 were retrieved through the Hellenic Statistical Authority Archive. 24-hour mean temperature was collected from 16 weather stations spread throughout the country. Analyses were focused on days with extremely low temperatures (5th percentile) as well as on the following seven days.

Results: The two leading death causes during extreme cold weather were diseases of the nervous system (36.5%) and diseases of the respiratory system (26.8%). The prevalence of deaths due the aforementioned causes was significantly increased on extreme cold weather (and following seven days) when compared to warm temperature days (temperatures ranging between 15-20 °C; p < 0.001). In addition, temperature during extreme cold weather was significantly associated with increased mortality; a decrease of 1 °C in mean temperature significantly increased mortality by 2.8% (p < 0.001). On the first and second day following extreme cold weather, mortality increased by 0.6% (p < 0.001) and 0.8% (p < 0.01), respectively.

Conclusion: Extreme cold weather is associated with all-cause mortality and also with cause-specific mortality. During extreme cold days, the diseases of the nervous and respiratory systems rise the most in Greece.

Full Text Link:

https://clinmedjournals.org/articles/jgmg/journal-of-geriatric-medicine-and-gerontology-jgmg-3-029.php?jid=jgmg#fig1

 

 

Global heating: attention is not enough; we need acute and appropriate actions

FAME Lab - Global heating: Attention is not enough; we need acute and appropriate actionsNybo L, Kjellstrom T, Bogataj LK, Flouris AD. Global heating: Attention is not enough; we need acute and appropriate actions. Temperature (Austin). 2017 Jun 14;4(3):199-201. doi: 10.1080/23328940.2017.1338930. PMID: 28944262; PMCID: PMC5605165.

Abstract:

Introducing HEAT-SHIELD ambitions for inter-sectoral collaboration to tackle temperature issues related to workplace heat
“Welcome to the world of Temperature!” With these words the present journal was launched as a publication with special focus on temperature issues and their essential importance for life. The shared focus and international collaboration is more relevant than ever as our future world will involve more heat and increased prevalence of heat-induced issues. Even with the least pessimistic climate scenarios predicting only small increases in the average global temperature, we will face higher frequencies of heat waves and marked increase in the total number of hot days in the vulnerable regions of the world.

Full Text Link:

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/23328940.2017.1338930

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https://www.famelab.gr/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Global-heating-attention-is-not-enough-we-need-acute-and-appropriate-actions_2017.pdf

 

 

Low-protein, high-carbohydrate diet increases browning in perirenal adipose tissue but not in inguinal adipose tissue

FAME Lab - Low-Protein, High-Carbohydrate Diet Increases Browning in Perirenal Adipose Tissue but Not in Inguinal Adipose TissuePereira MP, Ferreira LAA, da Silva FHS, Christoffolete MA, Metsios GS, Chaves VE, de França SA, Damazo AS, Flouris AD, Kawashita NH. A low-protein, high-carbohydrate diet increases browning in perirenal adipose tissue but not in inguinal adipose tissue. Nutrition. 2017 Oct;42:37-45. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2017.05.007. Epub 2017 May 31. PMID: 28870477.

Abstract:

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the browning and origin of fatty acids (FAs) in the maintenance of triacylglycerol (TG) storage and/or as fuel for thermogenesis in perirenal adipose tissue (periWAT) and inguinal adipose tissue (ingWAT) of rats fed a low-protein, high-carbohydrate (LPHC) diet.

Methods: LPHC (6% protein, 74% carbohydrate) or control (C; 17% protein, 63% carbohydrate) diets were administered to rats for 15 d. The tissues were stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histologic analysis. The content of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) was determined by immunofluorescence. Levels of T-box transcription factor (TBX1), PR domain containing 16 (PRDM16), adipose triacylglycerol lipase (ATGL), hormone-sensitive lipase, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), glycerokinase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), glucose transporter 4, β3-adrenergic receptor (AR), β1-AR, protein kinase A (PKA), adenosine-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and phospho-AMPK were determined by immunoblotting. Serum fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) was measured using a commercial kit (Student’s t tests, P < 0.05).

Results: The LPHC diet increased FGF21 levels by 150-fold. The presence of multilocular adipocytes, combined with the increased contents of UCP1, TBX1, and PRDM16 in periWAT of LPHC-fed rats, suggested the occurrence of browning. The contents of β1-AR and LPL were increased in the periWAT. The ingWAT showed higher ATGL and PEPCK levels, phospho-AMPK/AMPK ratio, and reduced β3-AR and PKA levels.

Conclusion: These findings suggest that browning occurred only in the periWAT and that higher utilization of FAs from blood lipoproteins acted as fuel for thermogenesis. Increased glycerol 3-phosphate generation by glyceroneogenesis increased FAs reesterification from lipolysis, explaining the increased TG storage in the ingWAT.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28870477/

 

 

Defining the determinants of endurance running performance in the heat

FAME Lab - Defining the determinants of endurance running performance in the heatJames CA, Hayes M, Willmott AGB, Gibson OR, Flouris AD, Schlader ZJ, Maxwell NS. Defining the determinants of endurance running performance in the heat. Temperature (Austin). 2017 May 25;4(3):314-329. doi: 10.1080/23328940.2017.1333189. PMID: 28944273; PMCID: PMC5605161.

Abstract:

In cool conditions, physiologic markers accurately predict endurance performance, but it is unclear whether thermal strain and perceived thermal strain modify the strength of these relationships. This study examined the relationships between traditional determinants of endurance performance and time to complete a 5-km time trial in the heat. Seventeen club runners completed graded exercise tests (GXT) in hot (GXTHOT; 32°C, 60% RH, 27.2°C WBGT) and cool conditions (GXTCOOL; 13°C, 50% RH, 9.3°C WBGT) to determine maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max), running economy (RE), velocity at V̇O2max (vV̇O2max), and running speeds corresponding to the lactate threshold (LT, 2 mmol.l−1) and lactate turnpoint (LTP, 4 mmol.l−1).

Simultaneous multiple linear regression was used to predict 5 km time, using these determinants, indicating neither GXTHOT (R2 = 0.72) nor GXTCOOL (R2 = 0.86) predicted performance in the heat as strongly has previously been reported in cool conditions. vV̇O2max was the strongest individual predictor of performance, both when assessed in GXTHOT (r = −0.83) and GXTCOOL (r = −0.90). The GXTs revealed the following correlations for individual predictors in GXTHOT; V̇O2max r = −0.7, RE r = 0.36, LT r = −0.77, LTP r = −0.78 and in GXTCOOL; V̇O2max r = −0.67, RE r = 0.62, LT r = −0.79, LTP r = −0.8. These data indicate (i) GXTHOT does not predict 5 km running performance in the heat as strongly as a GXTCOOL, (ii) as in cool conditions, vV̇O2max may best predict running performance in the heat.

Full Text Link:

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/23328940.2017.1333189

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https://www.famelab.gr/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Defining-the-determinants-of-endurance-running-performance-in-the-heat_2017.pdf

 

 

Effects of physical activity on the link between PGC-1a and FNDC5 in muscle, circulating irisin and UCP1 of white adipocytes in humans: a systematic review

FAME Lab - Effects of physical activity on the link between PGC-1a and FNDC5 in muscle, circulating Ιrisin and UCP1 of white adipocytes in humans: A systematic reviewDinas PC, Lahart IM, Timmons JA, Svensson PA, Koutedakis Y, Flouris AD, Metsios GS. Effects of physical activity on the link between PGC-1a and FNDC5 in muscle, circulating Ιrisin and UCP1 of white adipocytes in humans: A systematic review [version 2; peer review: 2 approved]F1000Research 2017, 6:286 (https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.11107.2).

Abstract:

Background: Exercise may activate a brown adipose-like phenotype in white adipose tissue. The aim of this systematic review was to identify the effects of physical activity on the link between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1a) and fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) in muscle, circulating Irisin and uncoupling protein one (UCP1) of white adipocytes in humans.

Methods: Two databases (PubMed 1966 to 08/2016 and EMBASE 1974 to 08/2016) were searched using an appropriate algorithm. We included articles that examined physical activity and/or exercise in humans that met the following criteria: a) PGC-1a in conjunction with FNDC5 measurements, and b) FNDC5 and/or circulating Irisin and/or UCP1 levels in white adipocytes.

Results: We included 51 studies (12 randomised controlled trials) with 2474 participants. Out of the 51 studies, 16 examined PGC-1a and FNDC5 in response to exercise, and only four found increases in both PGC-1a and FNDC5 mRNA and one showed increased FNDC5 mRNA. In total, 22 out of 45 studies that examined circulating Irisin in response to exercise showed increased concentrations when ELISA techniques were used; two studies also revealed increased Irisin levels measured via mass spectrometry. Three studies showed a positive association of circulating Irisin with physical activity levels. One study found no exercise effects on UCP1 mRNA in white adipocytes.

Conclusions: The effects of physical activity on the link between PGC-1a, FNDC5 mRNA in muscle and UCP1 in white human adipocytes has attracted little scientific attention. Current methods for Irisin identification lack precision and, therefore, the existing evidence does not allow for conclusions to be made regarding Irisin responses to physical activity. We found a contrast between standardised review methods and accuracy of the measurements used. This should be considered in future systematic reviews.

Full Text Link:

https://f1000research.com/articles/6-286/v2

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https://www.famelab.gr/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Effects-of-physical-activity-on-the-link-between-PGC-1a-and-FNDC5-in-muscle-circulating-irisin-and-UCP1-of-white-adipocytes-in-humans-a-systematic-review_2017.pdf

 

 

Heat remains unaccounted for in thermal physiology and climate change research

FAME Lab - Heat remains unaccounted for in thermal physiology and climate change researchFlouris AD and Kenny GP. Heat remains unaccounted for in thermal physiology and climate change research [version 2; peer review: 2 approved]. F1000Research 2017, 6:221 (https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.10554.2).

Abstract:

In the aftermath of the Paris Agreement, there is a crucial need for scientists in both thermal physiology and climate change research to develop the integrated approaches necessary to evaluate the health, economic, technological, social, and cultural impacts of 1.5°C warming. Our aim was to explore the fidelity of remote temperature measurements for quantitatively identifying the continuous redistribution of heat within both the Earth and the human body. Not accounting for the regional distribution of warming and heat storage patterns can undermine the results of thermal physiology and climate change research.

These concepts are discussed herein using two parallel examples: the so-called slowdown of the Earth’s surface temperature warming in the period 1998-2013; and the controversial results in thermal physiology, arising from relying heavily on core temperature measurements. In total, the concept of heat is of major importance for the integrity of systems, such as the Earth and human body. At present, our understanding about the interplay of key factors modulating the heat distribution on the surface of the Earth and in the human body remains incomplete. Identifying and accounting for the interconnections among these factors will be instrumental in improving the accuracy of both climate models and health guidelines.

Full Text Link:

https://f1000research.com/articles/6-221/v2

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https://www.famelab.gr/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Heat-remains-unaccounted-for-in-thermal-physiology-and-climate-change-research_2017.pdf

 

 

Role of UCP1 gene variants in interethnic differences in the development of cardio-metabolic diseases

FAME Lab - Role of UCP1 Gene Variants in Interethnic Differences in the Development of Cardio-Metabolic DiseasesFlouris AD, Shidlovskii YV, Shaposhnikov AV, Yepiskoposyan L, Nadolnik L, Karabon L, Kowalska A, Carrillo AE, Metsios GS and Sakellariou P (2017) Role of UCP1 Gene Variants in Interethnic Differences in the Development of Cardio-Metabolic Diseases. Front. Genet. 8:7. doi: 10.3389/fgene.2017.00007.

Abstract:

Cardio-metabolic diseases (CMDs) comprise a cluster of risk factors that contribute to chronic pathological conditions with adverse consequences for cardiovascular function and metabolic processes. A wide range of CMD prevalence rates among different ethnic groups has been documented. In view of accumulated evidence, there is a trend toward increasing CMD prevalence rates in Eastern Europe and Western Asia. Numerous studies have revealed an association between uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) gene variants and CMDs. UCP1 activity is essential for brown adipose tissue (BAT)-mediated thermogenesis.

Experimental animal studies and epidemiological studies in humans highlight the significance of BAT-mediated thermogenesis in protecting against obesity and maintaining a lean phenotype. We hypothesize that the genetic variation in UCP1 gene expression observed among different ethnic groups could contribute to the ethnic-specific predisposition to CMD development. Constructing such prevalence maps of UCP1 gene variants could contribute significantly into identifying high-risk ethnic groups predisposed to the development of CMDs, and further shaping public health policies by the improvement of existing preventive and management strategies.

Full Text Link:

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fgene.2017.00007/full

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Exercise-induced effects on UCP1 expression in classical brown adipose tissue: a systematic review

FAME Lab - Exercise-induced effects on UCP1 expression in classical brown adipose tissue: a systematic reviewFlouris AD, Dinas PC, Valente A, Andrade CMB, Kawashita NH, Sakellariou P. Exercise-induced effects on UCP1 expression in classical brown adipose tissue: a systematic review. Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig. 2017 Jan 13;31(2):/j/hmbci.2017.31.issue-2/hmbci-2016-0048/hmbci-2016-0048.xml. doi: 10.1515/hmbci-2016-0048. PMID: 28085671.

Abstract:

Understanding the impact of regular exercise training on uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) activity in classical brown adipose tissue (CBAT) is vital to our knowledge of whole-body thermogenic activity. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the available experimental evidence on the effect of regular exercise training on UCP1 expression in CBAT.

We performed a literature search using PubMed (1966-2016), Scopus, and EMBASE (1974-2016). Studies in any language that examined the effect of regular exercise training on UCP1 expression in CBAT, and not white adipose tissue (WAT), were eligible. Reviews, editorials, and conference proceedings were excluded. Nine studies fulfilled the set criteria. Risk of bias was assessed using the Systematic Review Centre for Laboratory Animal Experimentation (SYRCLE) tool. The quality of reporting the results in the included studies was assessed using the 38-item checklist of the Animal Research Reporting of In Vivo Experiments (ARRIVE). Based on the evidence available and a comprehensive analysis of different confounding factors, we conclude that regular exercise training does not represent a major stimulus of UCP1 expression in CBAT.

However, regular exercise training may induce adaptive responses to CBAT thermogenic activity in cases where: (i) animals consume a high-fat diet, (ii) exercise is combined with cold exposure, and (iii) animals show endogenously low UCP1 levels. Finally, it is important to note an inconsistency in the results from the analysed studies, which may be attributed to a number of confounding factors, increased risk of bias, as well as low quality of reporting the results.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28085671/

 

 

Hyperthermia and cardiovascular strain during an extreme heat exposure in young versus older adults

FAME Lab - Hyperthermia and cardiovascular strain during an extreme heat exposure in young versus older adultsKenny GP, Poirier MP, Metsios GS, Boulay P, Dervis S, Friesen BJ, Malcolm J, Sigal RJ, Seely AJ, Flouris AD. Hyperthermia and cardiovascular strain during an extreme heat exposure in young versus older adults. Temperature (Austin). 2016 Aug 31;4(1):79-88. doi: 10.1080/23328940.2016.1230171. PMID: 28349096; PMCID: PMC5356213.

Abstract:

We examined whether older individuals experience greater levels of hyperthermia and cardiovascular strain during an extreme heat exposure compared to young adults. During a 3-hour extreme heat exposure (44°C, 30% relative humidity), we compared body heat storage, core temperature (rectal, visceral) and cardiovascular (heart rate, cardiac output, mean arterial pressure, limb blood flow) responses of young adults (n = 30, 19-28 years) against those of older adults (n = 30, 55-73 years).

Direct calorimetry measured whole-body evaporative and dry heat exchange. Body heat storage was calculated as the temporal summation of heat production (indirect calorimetry) and whole-body heat loss (direct calorimetry) over the exposure period. While both groups gained a similar amount of heat in the first hour, the older adults showed an attenuated increase in evaporative heat loss (p < 0.033) in the first 30-min. Thereafter, the older adults were unable to compensate for a greater rate of heat gain (11 ± 1 ; p < 0.05) with a corresponding increase in evaporative heat loss.

Older adults stored more heat (358 ± 173 kJ) relative to their younger (202 ± 92 kJ; p < 0.001) counterparts at the end of the exposure leading to greater elevations in rectal (p = 0.043) and visceral (p = 0.05) temperatures, albeit not clinically significant (rise < 0.5°C). Older adults experienced a reduction in calf blood flow (p < 0.01) with heat stress, yet no differences in cardiac output, blood pressure or heart rate. We conclude, in healthy habitually active individuals, despite no clinically observable cardiovascular or temperature changes, older adults experience greater heat gain and decreased limb perfusion in response to 3-hour heat exposure.

Full Text Link:

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/23328940.2016.1230171

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https://www.famelab.gr/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Hyperthermia-and-cardiovascular-strain-during-an-extreme-heat-exposure-in-young-versus-older-adults_2016.pdf

 

 

Prolonged self-paced exercise in the heat – environmental factors affecting performance

FAME Lab - Prolonged self-paced exercise in the heat – environmental factors affecting performanceJunge N, Jørgensen R, Flouris AD, Nybo L. Prolonged self-paced exercise in the heat – environmental factors affecting performance. Temperature (Austin). 2016 Aug 15;3(4):539-548. doi: 10.1080/23328940.2016.1216257. PMID: 28090557; PMCID: PMC5198812.

Abstract:

In this review we examine how self-paced performance is affected by environmental heat stress factors during cycling time trial performance as well as considering the effects of exercise mode and heat acclimatization. Mean power output during prolonged cycling time trials in the heat (≥30°C) was on average reduced by 15% in the 14 studies that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Ambient temperature per se was a poor predictor of the integrated environmental heat stress and 2 of the prevailing heat stress indices (WBGT and UTCI) failed to predict the environmental influence on performance.

The weighing of wind speed appears to be too low for predicting the effect for cycling in trained acclimatized subjects, where performance may be maintained in outdoor time trials at ambient temperatures as high as 36°C (36°C UTCI; 28°C WBGT). Power output during indoor trials may also be maintained with temperatures up to at least 27°C when humidity is modest and wind speed matches the movement speed generated during outdoor cycling, whereas marked reductions are observed when air movement is minimal. For running, representing an exercise mode with lower movement speed and higher heat production for a given metabolic rate, it appears that endurance is affected even at much lower ambient temperatures.

On this basis we conclude that environmental heat stress impacts self-paced endurance performance. However, the effect is markedly modified by acclimatization status and exercise mode, as the wind generated by the exercise (movement speed) or the environment (natural or fan air movement) exerts a strong influence.

Full Text Link:

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/23328940.2016.1216257

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https://www.famelab.gr/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Prolonged-self-paced-exercise-in-the-heat-–-environmental-factors-affecting-performance_2016.pdf

 

 

Heart rate variability during high heat stress: a comparison between young and older adults with and without type 2 diabetes

FAME Lab - Heart rate variability during high heat stress: a comparison between young and older adults with and without Type 2 diabetesCarrillo AE, Flouris AD, Herry CL, Poirier MP, Boulay P, Dervis S, Friesen BJ, Malcolm J, Sigal RJ, Seely AJE, Kenny GP. Heart rate variability during high heat stress: a comparison between young and older adults with and without Type 2 diabetes. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2016 Oct 1;311(4):R669-R675. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00176.2016. Epub 2016 Aug 10. PMID: 27511279.

Abstract:

We examined whether older individuals with and without Type 2 diabetes (T2D) experience differences in heart rate variability (HRV) during a 3-h exposure to high heat stress compared with young adults. Young (Young; n = 22; 23 ± 3 yr) and older individuals with (T2D; n = 11; 59 ± 9 yr) and without (Older; n = 25; 63 ± 5 yr) T2D were exposed to heat stress (44°C, 30% relative humidity) for 3 h. Fifty-five HRV measures were assessed for 15 min at baseline and at minutes 82.5-97.5 (Mid) and minutes 165-180 (End) during heat stress. When compared with Young, a similar number of HRV indices were significantly different (P < 0.05) in Older (Baseline: 35; Mid: 29; End: 32) and T2D (Baseline: 31; Mid: 30; End: 27).

In contrast, the number of HRV indices significantly different (P < 0.05) between Older and T2D were far fewer (Baseline: 13, Mid: 1, End: 3). Within-group analyses demonstrated a greater change in the Young group’s HRV during heat stress compared with Older and T2D; the number of significantly different (P < 0.05) HRV indices between baseline and End were 42, 29, and 20, for Young, Older, and T2D, respectively. Analysis of specific HRV domains suggest that the Young group experienced greater sympathetic activity during heat stress compared with Older and T2D. In conclusion, when compared with young, older individuals with and without T2D demonstrate low HRV at baseline and less change in HRV (including an attenuated sympathetic response) during 3 h high heat stress, potentially contributing to impaired thermoregulatory function.

Full Text Link:

https://journals.physiology.org/doi/pdf/10.1152/ajpregu.00176.2016

 

 

Antioxidant responses following active and passive smoking of tobacco and electronic cigarettes

FAME Lab - Antioxidant responses following active and passive smoking of tobacco and electronic cigarettesPoulianiti K, Karatzaferi C, Flouris AD, Fatouros IG, Koutedakis Y, Jamurtas AZ. Antioxidant responses following active and passive smoking of tobacco and electronic cigarettes. Toxicol Mech Methods. 2016 Jul;26(6):455-61. doi: 10.1080/15376516.2016.1196281. Epub 2016 Jul 27. PMID: 27464467.

Abstract: 

Context: It has been indicated that acute active and passive tobacco cigarette smoking may cause changes on redox status balance that may result in significant pathologies. However, no study has evaluated the effects of active and passive e-cigarette smoking on redox status of consumers.

Objective: To examine the acute effects of active and passive e-cigarette and tobacco cigarette smoking on selected redox status markers.

Methods: Using a randomized single-blind crossover design, 30 participants (15 smokers and 15 nonsmokers) were exposed to three different experimental conditions. Smokers underwent a control session, an active tobacco cigarette smoking session (smoked 2 cigarettes within 30-min) and an active e-cigarette smoking session (smoked a pre-determined number of puffs within 30-min using a liquid with 11 ng/ml nicotine). Similarly, nonsmokers underwent a control session, a passive tobacco cigarette smoking session (exposure of 1 h to 23 ± 1 ppm of CO in a 60 m(3) environmental chamber) and a passive e-cigarette smoking session (exposure of 1 h to air enriched with pre- determined number of puffs in a 60 m(3) environmental chamber). Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), catalase activity (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were assessed in participants’ blood prior to, immediately after, and 1-h post-exposure.

Results: TAC, CAT and GSH remained similar to baseline levels immediately after and 1-h-post exposure (p > 0.05) in all trials. Conclusions: Tobacco and e-cigarette smoking exposure do not acutely alter the response of the antioxidant system, neither under active nor passive smoking conditions. Overall, there is not distinction between tobacco and e-cigarette active and passive smoking effects on specific redox status indices.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27464467/

 

 

Age, human performance, and physical employment standards

FAME Lab - Age, human performance, and physical employment standardsKenny GP, Groeller H, McGinn R, Flouris AD. Age, human performance, and physical employment standards. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2016 Jun;41(6 Suppl 2):S92-S107. doi: 10.1139/apnm-2015-0483. PMID: 27277571.

Abstract:

The proportion of older workers has increased substantially in recent years, with over 25% of the Canadian labour force aged ≥55 years. Along with chronological age comes age-related declines in functional capacity associated with impairments to the cardiorespiratory and muscular systems. As a result, older workers are reported to exhibit reductions in work output and in the ability to perform and/or sustain the required effort when performing work tasks. However, research has presented some conflicting views on the consequences of aging in the workforce, as physically demanding occupations can be associated with improved or maintained physical function.

Furthermore, the current methods for evaluating physical function in older workers often lack specificity and relevance to the actual work tasks, leading to an underestimation of physical capacity in the older worker. Nevertheless, industry often lacks the appropriate information and/or tools to accommodate the aging workforce, particularly in the context of physical employment standards. Ultimately, if appropriate workplace strategies and work performance standards are adopted to optimize the strengths and protect against the vulnerability of the aging workers, they can perform as effectively as their younger counterparts.

Our aim in this review is to evaluate the impact of different individual (including physiological decline, chronic disease, lifestyle, and physical activity) and occupational (including shift work, sleep deprivation, and cold/heat exposure) factors on the physical decline of older workers, and therefore the risk of work-related injuries or illness.

Full Text Link:

https://cdnsciencepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1139/apnm-2015-0483

 

 

Do the threshold limit values for work in hot conditions adequately protect workers?

FAME Lab - Do the threshold limit values for work in hot conditions adequately protect workers?Meade RD, Poirier MP, Flouris AD, Hardcastle SG, Kenny GP. Do the Threshold Limit Values for Work in Hot Conditions Adequately Protect Workers? Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2016 Jun;48(6):1187-96. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000000886. PMID: 26938043.

Abstract:

Purpose: We evaluated core temperature responses and the change in body heat content (ΔHb) during work performed according to the ACGIH threshold limit values (TLV) for heat stress, which are designed to ensure a stable core temperature that does not exceed 38.0°C.

Methods: Nine young males performed a 120-min work protocol consisting of cycling at a fixed rate of heat production (360 W). On the basis of the TLV, each protocol consisted of a different work-rest (WR) allocation performed in different wet-bulb globe temperatures (WBGT). The first was 120 min of continuous (CON) cycling at 28.0°C WBGT (CON[28.0°C]).

The remaining three protocols were intermittent work bouts (15-min duration) performed at various WR and WBGT: (i) WR of 3:1 at 29.0°C (WR3:1[29.0°C]), (ii) WR of 1:1 at 30.0°C (WR1:1[30.0°C]), and (iii) WR of 1:3 at 31.5°C (WR1:3[31.5°C]) (total exercise time: 90, 60, and 30 min, respectively). The change in rectal (ΔTre) and mean body temperature (ΔTb) was evaluated with thermometry. ΔHb was determined via direct calorimetry and also used to calculate ΔTb.

Results: Although average rectal temperature did not exceed 38.0°C, heat balance was not achieved during exercise in any work protocol (i.e., rate of ΔTre > 0°C·min; all P values ≤ 0.02). Consequently, it was projected that if work was extended to 4 h, the distribution of participant core temperatures higher and lower than 38.0°C would be statistically similar (all P values ≥ 0.10). Furthermore, ΔHb was similar between protocols (P = 0.70). However, a greater ΔTb was observed with calorimetry relative to thermometry in WR3:1[29.0°C] (P = 0.03), WR1:1[30.0°C] (P = 0.02), and WR1:3[31.5°C] (P < 0.01) but not CON[28.0°C] (P = 0.32).

Conclusion: The current study demonstrated that heat balance was not achieved and ΔTb and ΔHb were inconsistent, suggesting that the TLV may not adequately protect workers during work in hot conditions.

Full Text:
https://journals.lww.com/acsm-msse/Fulltext/2016/06000/Do_the_Threshold_Limit_Values_for_Work_in_Hot.26.aspx

 

 

Do the threshold limit values for work in hot conditions adequately protect workers?

FAME Lab - Do the Threshold Limit Values for Work in Hot Conditions Adequately Protect Workers?Meade RD, Poirier MP, Flouris AD, Hardcastle SG, Kenny GP. Do the Threshold Limit Values for Work in Hot Conditions Adequately Protect Workers? Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2016 Jun;48(6):1187-96. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000000886. PMID: 26938043.

Abstract:

Purpose: We evaluated core temperature responses and the change in body heat content (ΔHb) during work performed according to the ACGIH threshold limit values (TLV) for heat stress, which are designed to ensure a stable core temperature that does not exceed 38.0°C.

Methods: Nine young males performed a 120-min work protocol consisting of cycling at a fixed rate of heat production (360 W). On the basis of the TLV, each protocol consisted of a different work-rest (WR) allocation performed in different wet-bulb globe temperatures (WBGT). The first was 120 min of continuous (CON) cycling at 28.0°C WBGT (CON[28.0°C]). The remaining three protocols were intermittent work bouts (15-min duration) performed at various WR and WBGT: (i) WR of 3:1 at 29.0°C (WR3:1[29.0°C]), (ii) WR of 1:1 at 30.0°C (WR1:1[30.0°C]), and (iii) WR of 1:3 at 31.5°C (WR1:3[31.5°C]) (total exercise time: 90, 60, and 30 min, respectively). The change in rectal (ΔTre) and mean body temperature (ΔTb) was evaluated with thermometry. ΔHb was determined via direct calorimetry and also used to calculate ΔTb.

Results: Although average rectal temperature did not exceed 38.0°C, heat balance was not achieved during exercise in any work protocol (i.e., rate of ΔTre > 0°C·min; all P values ≤ 0.02). Consequently, it was projected that if work was extended to 4 h, the distribution of participant core temperatures higher and lower than 38.0°C would be statistically similar (all P values ≥ 0.10). Furthermore, ΔHb was similar between protocols (P = 0.70). However, a greater ΔTb was observed with calorimetry relative to thermometry in WR3:1[29.0°C] (P = 0.03), WR1:1[30.0°C] (P = 0.02), and WR1:3[31.5°C] (P < 0.01) but not CON[28.0°C] (P = 0.32).

Conclusion: The current study demonstrated that heat balance was not achieved and ΔTb and ΔHb were inconsistent, suggesting that the TLV may not adequately protect workers during work in hot conditions.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26938043/

 

 

Chronic l-menthol-induced browning of white adipose tissue hypothesis: a putative therapeutic regime for combating obesity and improving metabolic health

FAME Lab - Chronic l-menthol-induced browning of white adipose tissue hypothesis: A putative therapeutic regime for combating obesity and improving metabolic healthSakellariou P, Valente A, Carrillo AE, Metsios GS, Nadolnik L, Jamurtas AZ, Koutedakis Y, Boguszewski C, Andrade CM, Svensson PA, Kawashita NH, Flouris AD. Chronic l-menthol-induced browning of white adipose tissue hypothesis: A putative therapeutic regime for combating obesity and improving metabolic health. Med Hypotheses. 2016 Aug;93:21-6. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2016.05.006. Epub 2016 May 11. PMID: 27372851.

Abstract:

Introduction: Obesity constitutes a serious global health concern reaching pandemic prevalence rates. The existence of functional brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans has provoked intense research interest in the role of this metabolically active tissue in whole-body energy balance and body weight regulation. A number of environmental, physiological, pathological, and pharmacological stimuli have been proposed to induce BAT-mediated thermogenesis and functional thermogenic BAT-like activity in white adipose tissue (WAT), opening new avenues for therapeutic strategies based on enhancing the number of beige adipocytes in WAT.

Hypothesis: Recent evidence support a role of l-menthol cooling, mediated by TRPM8 receptor, on UCP1-dependent thermogenesis and BAT-like activity in classical WAT depots along with the recruitment of BAT at specific anatomical sites. l-Menthol-induced BAT thermogenesis has been suggested to occur by a β-adrenergic-independent mechanism, avoiding potential side-effects due to extensive β-adrenergic stimulation mediated by available beta receptor agonists. l-Menthol has been also linked to the activation of the cold-gated ion channel TRPA1.

However, its role in l-menthol-induced UCP1-dependent thermogenic activity in BAT and WAT remains undetermined. White adipose tissue plasticity has important clinical implications for obesity prevention and/or treatment because higher levels of UCP1-dependent thermogenesis can lead to enhanced energy expenditure at a considerable extent. We hypothesize that chronic dietary l-menthol treatment could induce TRPM8- and TRPA1-dependent WAT adaptations, resembling BAT-like activity, and overall improve whole-body metabolic health in obese and overweight individuals.

Conclusions: The putative impact of chronic l-menthol dietary treatment on the stimulation of BAT-like activity in classical WAT depots in humans remains unknown. A detailed experimental design has been proposed to investigate the hypothesized l-menthol-induced browning of WAT. If our hypothesis was to be confirmed, TRPM8/TRPA1-induced metabolic adaptations of WAT to BAT-like activity could provide a promising novel therapeutic approach for increasing energy expenditure, regulating body weight, and preventing obesity and its related co-morbidities in humans.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27372851/

 

 

The effect of plasma osmolality and baroreceptor loading status on postexercise heat loss responses

FAME Lab - The effect of plasma osmolality and baroreceptor loading status on postexercise heat loss responsesPaull G, Dervis S, Barrera-Ramirez J, McGinn R, Haqani B, Flouris AD, Kenny GP. The effect of plasma osmolality and baroreceptor loading status on postexercise heat loss responses. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2016 Mar 15;310(6):R522-31. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00435.2015. Epub 2016 Jan 13. PMID: 26764055.

Abstract:

We examined the separate and combined effects of plasma osmolality and baroreceptor loading status on postexercise heat loss responses. Nine young males completed a 45-min treadmill exercise protocol at 58 ± 2% V̇o2 peak, followed by a 60-min recovery.

On separate days, participants received 0.9% NaCl (ISO), 3.0% NaCl (HYP), or no infusion (natural recovery) throughout exercise. In two additional sessions (no infusion), lower-body negative (LBNP) or positive (LBPP) pressure was applied throughout the final 45 min of recovery. Local sweat rate (LSR; ventilated capsule: chest, forearm, upper back, forehead) and skin blood flow (SkBF; laser-Doppler flowmetry: forearm, upper back) were continuously measured. During HYP, upper back LSR was attenuated from end-exercise to 10 min of recovery by ∼0.35 ± 0.10 mg·min(-1)·cm(-2) and during the last 20 min of recovery by ∼0.13 ± 0.03 mg·min(-1)·cm(-2), while chest LSR was lower by 0.18 ± 0.06 mg·min(-1)·cm(-2) at 50 min of recovery compared with natural recovery (all P < 0.05).

Forearm and forehead LSRs were not affected by plasma hyperosmolality during HYP (all P > 0.28), which suggests regional differences in the osmotic modulation of postexercise LSR. Furthermore, LBPP application attenuated LSR by ∼0.07-0.28 mg·min(-1)·cm(-2) during the last 30 min of recovery at all sites except the forehead compared with natural recovery (all P < 0.05). Relative to natural recovery, forearm and upper back SkBF were elevated during LBPP, ISO, and HYP by ∼6-10% by the end of recovery (all P < 0.05). We conclude that 1) hyperosmolality attenuates postexercise sweating heterogeneously among skin regions, and 2) baroreceptor loading modulates postexercise SkBF independently of changes in plasma osmolality without regional differences.

Full Text Link:

https://journals.physiology.org/doi/pdf/10.1152/ajpregu.00435.2015

 

 

A low-protein, high-carbohydrate diet stimulates thermogenesis in the brown adipose tissue of rats via ATF-2

FAME Lab - A Low-Protein, High-Carbohydrate Diet Stimulates Thermogenesis in the Brown Adipose Tissue of Rats via ATF-2de França SA, dos Santos MP, Przygodda F, Garófalo MA, Kettelhut IC, Magalhães DA, Bezerra KS, Colodel EM, Flouris AD, Andrade CM, Kawashita NH. A Low-Protein, High-Carbohydrate Diet Stimulates Thermogenesis in the Brown Adipose Tissue of Rats via ATF-2. Lipids. 2016 Mar;51(3):303-10. doi: 10.1007/s11745-016-4119-z. Epub 2016 Jan 19. PMID: 26781764.

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to evaluate thermogenesis in the interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT) of rats submitted to low-protein, high-carbohydrate (LPHC) diet and the involvement of adrenergic stimulation in this process.

Male rats (~100 g) were submitted to LPHC (6%-protein; 74%-carbohydrate) or control (C; 17%-protein; 63%-carbohydrate) isocaloric diets for 15 days. The IBAT temperature was evaluated in the rats before and after the administration of noradrenaline (NA) (20 µg 100 g b w(-1) min(-1)). The expression levels of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and other proteins involved in the regulation of UCP1 expression were determined by Western blot (Student’s t test, P ≤ 0.05). The LPHC diet promoted a 1.1 °C increase in the basal temperature of IBAT when compared with the basal temperature in the IBAT of the C group. NA administration promoted a 0.3 °C increase in basal temperature in the IBAT of the C rats and a 0.5 °C increase in the IBAT of the LPHC group.

The level of UCP1 increased 60% in the IBAT of LPHC-fed rats, and among the proteins involved in its expression, such as β3-AR and α1-AR, there was a 40% increase in the levels of p38-MAPK and a 30% decrease in CREB when compared to the C rats. The higher sympathetic flux to IBAT, which is a consequence of the administration of the LPHC diet to rats, activates thermogenesis and increases the expression of UCP1 in the tissue. Our results suggest that the increase in UCP1 content may occur via p38 MAPK and ATF2.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26781764/

 

 

Developing and testing an instrument to assess aquaticity in humans

FAME Lab - Developing and testing an instrument to assess aquaticity in humansVarveri D, Flouris AD, Smirnios N, Pollatou E, Karatzaferi C, Sakkas GK. Developing and testing an instrument to assess aquaticity in humans. J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2016 Jul;20(3):497-503. doi: 10.1016/j.jbmt.2015.12.013. Epub 2016 Jan 9. PMID: 27634070.

Abstract:

We developed and validated an aquaticity assessment test (AAT) for the evaluation of human physical adequacy in the water. Forty-six volunteers (25M/21F; 20 ± 8 years) participated and performed 10 easy-to-administer and practical aquatic tasks.

Group A was formed by 36 elite athletes (M/F 20/16, 24.7 ± 10yrs) from two sports categories depending on their affinity to the water environment: terrestrial (wrestling, cycling, dancing) and aquatic (swimming, synchronized swimming, free diving) sports. Group B was formed by 10 non-athlete participants (5M/5F, 14.4 ± 1.4yrs) and was assessed by two independent evaluators. Participants in Group A performed the aquatic tasks once to develop the final AAT items and cutoffs. Participants in Group B performed the aquatic tasks twice on different days to assess repeatability.

Factor analysis recommended all 10 aquatic tasks to be included in the final AAT, resulting in scores ranging from 9.5 to 49.5. The AAT scores were statistically different between the terrestrial and the aquatic sports’ participants (p < 0.001). The duration of the test was 25 min from the time of water entry. Receiver operating characteristics curve analyses demonstrated that the cutoffs for low and high aquaticity levels in this sample were ≤23.7 and ≥43.3, respectively. Reliability analyses demonstrated that the aquaticity scores obtained on different days and by different examiners highly correlated (p < 0.001) and were not significantly different (p > 0.05).

The AAT appears to be a valid and reliable tool for the evaluation of human physical adequacy in the water. It is an easy and user-friendly test which can be performed in any swimming pool without a need for highly trained staff and specialized equipment, however more research needs to be done in order to be applied in other population group.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27634070/

 

 

The physical demands of electrical utilities work in North America

FAME Lab - The physical demands of electrical utilities work in North America Meade RD, Lauzon M, Poirier MP, Flouris AD, Kenny GP. The physical demands of electrical utilities work in North America. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2016;13(1):60-70. doi: 10.1080/15459624.2015.1077966. PMID: 26317802.

Abstract:

We assessed the physical demands associated with electrical utilities work in North America and how they influence the level of thermal and cardiovascular strain experienced.

Three common job categories were monitored as they are normally performed in thirty-two electrical utility workers: (i) Ground Work (n = 11), (ii) Bucket Work (n = 9), and (iii) Manual Pole Work (n = 12). Video analysis was performed to determine the proportion of the work monitoring period (duration: 187 ± 104 min) spent at different levels of physical effort (i.e., rest as well as light, moderate and heavy effort). Core and skin temperatures as well as heart rate were measured continuously. On average, workers spent 35.9 ± 15.9, 36.8 ± 17.8, 24.7 ± 12.8, and 2.6 ± 3.3% of the work period at rest and performing work classified as light, moderate, and heavy physical effort, respectively.

Moreover, a greater proportion of the work period was spent performing heavy work in Ground Work (1.6 ± 1.4%) relative to Bucket Work (0.0 ± 0.0%; P<0.01) and in Manual Pole Climbing (5.5 ± 3.6%) in comparison to both other work job (both P≤0.03). Furthermore, the proportion of time spent during work classified as heavy physical effort was positively correlated to the mean (r = 0.51, P<0.01) and peak (r = 0.42, P = 0.02) core temperatures achieved during the work period as well as the mean heart rate response (presented as a percentage of heart rate reserve; r = 0.40, P = 0.03).

Finally, mean and peak core temperatures and mean heart rate responses increased from the first to the second half of the work shift; however, no differences in the proportion of the work spent at the different intensity classifications were observed. We show that Manual Pole Work is associated with greater levels of physical effort compared to Ground or Bucket Work. Moreover, we suggest that the proportion of time spent performing work classified as heavy physical exertion is related to the level of thermal and cardiovascular strain experienced and that workers may not be employing self-pacing as a strategy to manage their level of physiological strain.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26317802/

 

 

The absorption and metabolism of a single l-menthol oral versus skin administration: effects on thermogenesis and metabolic rate

FAME Lab - The absorption and metabolism of a single L-menthol oral versus skin administration: Effects on thermogenesis and metabolic rateValente A, Carrillo AE, Tzatzarakis MN, Vakonaki E, Tsatsakis AM, Kenny GP, Koutedakis Y, Jamurtas AZ, Flouris AD. The absorption and metabolism of a single L-menthol oral versus skin administration: Effects on thermogenesis and metabolic rate. Food Chem Toxicol. 2015 Dec;86:262-73. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2015.09.018. Epub 2015 Sep 30. PMID: 26429629.

Abstract:

We investigated the absorption and metabolism pharmacokinetics of a single L-menthol oral versus skin administration and the effects on human thermogenesis and metabolic rate. Twenty healthy adults were randomly distributed into oral (capsule) and skin (gel) groups and treated with 10 mg kg(-1) L-menthol (ORALMENT; SKINMENT) or control (lactose capsule: ORALCON; water application: SKINCON) in a random order on two different days. Levels of serum L-menthol increased similarly in ORALMENT and SKINMENT (p > 0.05).

L-menthol glucuronidation was greater in ORALMENT than SKINMENT (p < 0.05). Cutaneous vasoconstriction, rectal temperature and body heat storage showed greater increase following SKINMENT compared to ORALMENT and control conditions (p < 0.05). Metabolic rate increased from baseline by 18% in SKINMENT and 10% in ORALMENT and respiratory exchange ratio decreased more in ORALMENT (5.4%) than SKINMENT (4.8%) compared to control conditions (p < 0.05). Levels of plasma adiponectin and leptin as well as heart rate variability were similar to control following either treatment (p > 0.05). Participants reported no cold, shivering, discomfort, stress or skin irritation. We conclude that a single L-menthol skin administration increased thermogenesis and metabolic rate in humans. These effects are minor following L-menthol oral administration probably due to faster glucuronidation and greater blood menthol glucuronide levels.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26429629/

 

 

Muscle metaboreceptors modulate postexercise sweating, but not cutaneous blood flow, independent of baroreceptor loading status

FAME Lab - Muscle metaboreceptors modulate postexercise sweating, but not cutaneous blood flow, independent of baroreceptor loading statusPaull G, Dervis S, McGinn R, Haqani B, Flouris AD, Kondo N, Kenny GP. Muscle metaboreceptors modulate postexercise sweating, but not cutaneous blood flow, independent of baroreceptor loading status. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2015 Dec 1;309(11):R1415-24. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00287.2015. Epub 2015 Sep 16. PMID: 26377560; PMCID: PMC4698400.

Abstract:

We examined whether sustained changes in baroreceptor loading status during prolonged postexercise recovery can alter the metaboreceptors’ influence on heat loss.

Thirteen young males performed a 1-min isometric handgrip exercise (IHG) at 60% maximal voluntary contraction followed by 2 min of forearm ischemia (to activate metaboreceptors) before and 15, 30, 45, and 60 min after a 15-min intense treadmill running exercise (>90% maximal heart rate) in the heat (35°C). This was repeated on three separate days with continuous lower body positive (LBPP, +40 mmHg), negative (LBNP, -20 mmHg), or no pressure (Control) from 13- to 65-min postexercise. Sweat rate (ventilated capsule; forearm, chest, upper back) and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC; forearm, upper back) were measured.

Relative to pre-IHG levels, sweating at all sites increased during IHG and remained elevated during ischemia at baseline and similarly at 30, 45, and 60 min postexercise (site average sweat rate increase during ischemia: Control, 0.13 ± 0.02; LBPP, 0.12 ± 0.02; LBNP, 0.15 ± 0.02 mg·min(-1)·cm(-2); all P < 0.01), but not at 15 min (all P > 0.10). LBPP and LBNP did not modulate the pattern of sweating to IHG and ischemia (all P > 0.05). At 15-min postexercise, forearm CVC was reduced from pre-IHG levels during both IHG and ischemia under LBNP only (ischemia: 3.9 ± 0.8% CVCmax; P < 0.02).

Therefore, we show metaboreceptors increase postexercise sweating in the middle to late stages of recovery (30-60 min), independent of baroreceptor loading status and similarly between skin sites. In contrast, metaboreflex modulation of forearm but not upper back CVC occurs only in the early stages of recovery (15 min) and is dependent upon baroreceptor unloading.

Full Text Link:

https://journals.physiology.org/doi/pdf/10.1152/ajpregu.00287.2015

 

 

Shaping our understanding of endothermic thermoregulation

Shaping our understanding of endothermic thermoregulationFlouris AD. Shaping our understanding of endothermic thermoregulation. Temperature (Austin). 2015 Oct 12;2(3):328-9. doi: 10.1080/23328940.2015.1058321. PMID: 27227039; PMCID: PMC4843907.

Abstract:

The paper by Kobayashi entitled “Temperature receptors in cutaneous nerve endings are thermostat molecules that induce thermoregulatory behaviors against thermal load”1 summarizes a series of elegant studies conducted by Kobayashi and colleagues during the past 30 years. These studies have challenged the “hypothalamic proportional control” model which remains the most widely accepted approach for the functional architecture of endothermic thermoregulation over the past 50+ years.2 Kobayashi opposes the dogma that receptors are sensors, arguing instead that receptors are “comparators.”

He proposes that heat- and cold-sensitive neurons are comparators of temperature and evoke impulses when temperature surpasses a receptor activation threshold. In turn, these impulses are not a form of neural code (as assumed by the “hypothalamic proportional control” model) but they are actually triggers to activate target effector neurons in the brain. For instance, when skin temperature is below its threshold value, peripheral cold-sensitive neurons evoke impulses to stimulate target neurons in the brain responsible for appropriate heat-seeking responses. Consequently, skin coolness “…only occurs in the sensation world in our mind.”3 Ergo, the “comparator” model suggests that effectors are triggered via sensory neurons directly, without the involvement/presence of a separate decision-making network or temperature code computations.

Full Text Link:

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/23328940.2015.1058321?needAccess=true

 

 

Muscle damage, inflammatory, immune and performance responses to three football games in 1 week in competitive male players

FAME Lab - Muscle damage, inflammatory, immune and performance responses to three football games in 1 week in competitive male playersMohr M, Draganidis D, Chatzinikolaou A, Barbero-Álvarez JC, Castagna C, Douroudos I, Avloniti A, Margeli A, Papassotiriou I, Flouris AD, Jamurtas AZ, Krustrup P, Fatouros IG. Muscle damage, inflammatory, immune and performance responses to three football games in 1 week in competitive male players. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2016 Jan;116(1):179-93. doi: 10.1007/s00421-015-3245-2. Epub 2015 Sep 16. PMID: 26377004.

Abstract:

Purpose: We examined effects of a three-game, 1-week microcycle (G1, G2, G3) on recovery of performance and inflammatory responses in professional male footballers.

Methods: Players were randomized into an experimental (EXP; N = 20) and a control group (CON; N = 20). Blood was drawn and repeated sprint ability (RSA), muscle soreness and knee range of motion (KJRM) were determined pre- and post-games and during recovery.

Results: High-intensity running during G2 was 7-14% less compared to G1 and G3. RSA declined in EXP by 2-9% 3 days post-game with G2 causing the greatest performance impairment. In EXP, game play increased muscle soreness (~sevenfold) compared to CON with G2 inducing the greatest rise, while KJRM was attenuated post-game in EXP compared to CON (5-7%) and recovered slower post G2 and G3 than G1. CK, CRP, sVCAM-1, sP-Selectin and cortisol peaked 48 h post-games with G2 eliciting the greatest increase. Leukocyte count, testosterone, IL-1β and IL6 responses, although altered 24 h post each game, were comparable among games. Plasma TBARS and protein carbonyls rose by ~50% post-games with G2 eliciting the greatest increase 48 h of recovery. Reduced to oxidized glutathione ratio declined for 24 h post all games with G2 displaying the slowest recovery. Total antioxidant capacity and glutathione peroxidase activity increased (9-56%) for 48 h in response to game play.

Conclusion: In summary, post-game performance recovery and inflammatory adaptations in response to a three-game weekly microcycle displayed a different response pattern, with strong indications of a largest physiological stress and fatigue after the middle game that was preceded by only a 3-day recovery.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26377004/

 

 

Author’s reply to brocherie and millet: ‘is the wet-bulb globe temperature (WGBT) index relevant for exercise in the heat?’

Author's reply to brocherie and millet: 'is the wet-bulb globe temperature (WGBT) index relevant for exercise in the heat?' - Sports MedicinePériard JD, Jay O, Alonso JM, Coutts AJ, Flouris AD, González-Alonso J, Hausswirth C, Lee JK, Nassis GP, Nybo L, Pluim BM, Roelands B, Sawka MN, Wingo J, Racinais S. Author’s Reply to Brocherie and Millet: ‘Is the Wet-Bulb Globe Temperature (WGBT) Index Relevant for Exercise in the Heat?’. Sports Med. 2015 Nov;45(11):1623-4. doi: 10.1007/s40279-015-0392-x. Erratum in: Sports Med. 2016 Jan;46(1):139-41. Kong, Lee [removed]. Erratum in: Sports Med. 2016 Jan;46(1):139-141. PMID: 26392123.

Abstract:

We thank the correspondents [1] for their interest in the recent consensus statement on training and competing in the heat [2]. However, we were somewhat perplexed to note that the authors considered that the consensus statement “did not highlight one of the main current limitations: the recommendations for various sporting governing bodies (i.e., event organizers and international federations) are still based on the Wet-Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) index”.

Indeed, one of the main recommendations in the consensus statement is that “the WBGT is an environmental heat stress index and not a representation of human heat strain. It is therefore difficult to establish absolute participation cut-off values across sports for different athletes and we rather recommend implementing preventive countermeasures or evaluating the specific demands of the sport when preparing extreme heat policies” [2].

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26392123/

 

 

An evaluation of the physiological strain experienced by electrical utility workers in North America

FAME Lab - An Evaluation of the Physiological Strain Experienced by Electrical Utility Workers in North AmericaMeade RD, Lauzon M, Poirier MP, Flouris AD, Kenny GP. An Evaluation of the Physiological Strain Experienced by Electrical Utility Workers in North America. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2015;12(10):708-20. doi: 10.1080/15459624.2015.1043054. PMID: 26011148.

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to assess the physiological strain experienced by North American electrical utility workers during the performance of their normal work duties in heat stressed conditions. Three common job categories were monitored as they are normally performed in 32 electrical utility workers: (i) Ground Work (n = 11); (ii) Bucket Work (n = 9); and (iii) Manual Pole Work (n = 12).

Worker hydration status (urine specific gravity (USG)) was measured prior to and following the work monitoring period (duration: 187 ± 104 min). Core and skin temperatures as well as heart rate were measured continuously. Physiological Strain Index (PSI) was calculated from the measurements of core temperature and heart rate. Prior to the start of the work shift, 38% of workers were euhydrated (USG < 1.020; n = 12) whereas the majority of workers were dehydrated (USG > 1.020; prevalence: 75%; p < 0.01) following work. The overall mean and peak core temperatures for all monitored workers were 37.9 ± 0.3 °C and 38.3 ± 0.5 °C, respectively.

When responses were compared between job categories, greater mean and peak increases in core temperature were observed in Manual Pole Work relative to the other job categories (both p < 0.04). In fact, six workers performing Manual Pole Work achieved core temperatures in excess of 38.5 °C, while only one other worker surpassed this threshold in Bucket Work. The high levels of thermal strain were paralleled by elevated mean and peak heart rate and PSI responses, which were greater in Manual Pole Work in comparison to the other job categories (all p ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, two workers performing Manual Pole Work achieved severely elevated core temperatures reaching or exceeding 39.5 °C along with prolonged periods of near maximal heart rate responses (i.e., >90% of heart rate reserve).

We report elevated levels of thermal and cardiovascular strain in electrical utility workers during work in the heat and potentially dangerous levels of hyperthermia during particularly strenuous work.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26011148/

 

 

The relevance of stretch intensity and position—a systematic review

FAME Lab - The relevance of stretch intensity and position—a systematic reviewApostolopoulos N, Metsios GS, Flouris AD, Koutedakis Y, Wyon MA. The relevance of stretch intensity and position-a systematic review. Front Psychol. 2015 Aug 18;6:1128. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01128. PMID: 26347668; PMCID: PMC4540085.

Abstract:

Stretching exercises to increase the range of motion (ROM) of joints have been used by sports coaches and medical professionals for improving performance and rehabilitation. The ability of connective and muscular tissues to change their architecture in response to stretching is important for their proper function, repair, and performance.

Given the dearth of relevant data in the literature, this review examined two key elements of stretching: stretch intensity and stretch position; and their significance to ROM, delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), and inflammation in different populations. A search of three databases, Pub-Med, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Reviews, identified 152 articles, which were subsequently categorized into four groups: athletes (24), clinical (29), elderly (12), and general population (87). The use of different populations facilitated a wider examination of the stretching components and their effects.

All 152 articles incorporated information regarding duration, frequency and stretch position, whereas only 79 referred to the intensity of stretching and 22 of these 79 studies were deemed high quality. It appears that the intensity of stretching is relatively under-researched, and the importance of body position and its influence on stretch intensity, is largely unknown. In conclusion, this review has highlighted areas for future research, including stretch intensity and position and their effect on musculo-tendinous tissue, in relation to the sensation of pain, delayed onset muscle soreness, inflammation, as well as muscle health and performance.

Full Text Link:

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01128/full

Download PDF:

https://www.famelab.gr/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/The-relevance-of-stretch-intensity-and-position—a-systematic-review_2015.pdf

 

 

Iron status markers are only transiently affected by a football game

FAME Lab - Iron status markers are only transiently affected by a football gameJamurtas AZ, Douroudos II, Deli CK, Draganidis D, Chatzinikolaou A, Mohr M, Avloniti A, Barbero-Álvarez JC, Margonis K, Mavropalias G, Stampoulis T, Giannakidou D, Flouris AD, Koutedakis Y, Fatouros IG. Iron status markers are only transiently affected by a football game. J Sports Sci. 2015;33(20):2088-99. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2015.1064154. Epub 2015 Jul 13. Erratum in: J Sports Sci. 2015;33(20):i. PMID: 26168312.

Abstract: 

We examined the temporal variation of iron’s status markers during a 60 h period following a football game. Thirty-four male football players were randomly assigned to a control group (CG, N = 14, participated only in measurements and training) or an experimental group (EG, N = 20, took part in a football game one week after the completion of the competitive season). All participants trained regularly for two consecutive days after the game. Training and game load was monitored with high time-resolution global positioning system (GPS) devices. Blood samples were collected and muscle damage markers and repeated sprint ability (RSA) were assessed pre-game and at 2 h, 12 h 36 h and 60 h post-game.

No changes were noted in CG. Iron concentration decreased (P < 0.05) 2 h post-game and normalised thereafter whereas total iron binding capacity increased (P < 0.05) 12-60 h of recovery (P < 0.05). Erythrocytes, haemoglobin (HGB) concentration, plasma volume, haematocrit, mean cell volume, mean cell HGB, mean cell HGB concentration, red cell width-SD, red cell width-CV, ferritin concentration and transferrin saturation remained unaltered during the intervention period. Creatine kinase activity and muscle soreness increased (P < 0.05) throughout recovery in EG. RSA declined (P < 0.05) until 36 h of recovery and normalised thereafter. Our data demonstrate that iron status markers are only transiently affected by a football game.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26168312/

 

 

Consensus recommendations on training and competing in the heat

FAME Lab - Consensus recommendations on training and competing in the heatRacinais S, Alonso JM, Coutts AJ, Flouris AD, Girard O, González-Alonso J, Hausswirth C, Jay O, Lee JK, Mitchell N, Nassis GP, Nybo L, Pluim BM, Roelands B, Sawka MN, Wingo J, Périard JD. Consensus Recommendations on Training and Competing in the Heat. Sports Med. 2015 Jul;45(7):925-38. doi: 10.1007/s40279-015-0343-6. PMID: 26002286; PMCID: PMC4473280.

Abstract:

Exercising in the heat induces thermoregulatory and other physiological strain that can lead to impairments in endurance exercise capacity. The purpose of this consensus statement is to provide up-to-date recommendations to optimize performance during sporting activities undertaken in hot ambient conditions. The most important intervention one can adopt to reduce physiological strain and optimize performance is to heat acclimatize. Heat acclimatization should comprise repeated exercise-heat exposures over 1-2 weeks. In addition, athletes should initiate competition and training in a euhydrated state and minimize dehydration during exercise.

Following the development of commercial cooling systems (e.g., cooling vest), athletes can implement cooling strategies to facilitate heat loss or increase heat storage capacity before training or competing in the heat. Moreover, event organizers should plan for large shaded areas, along with cooling and rehydration facilities, and schedule events in accordance with minimizing the health risks of athletes, especially in mass participation events and during the first hot days of the year. Following the recent examples of the 2008 Olympics and the 2014 FIFA World Cup, sport governing bodies should consider allowing additional (or longer) recovery periods between and during events for hydration and body cooling opportunities when competitions are held in the heat.

Full Text Link:

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40279-015-0343-6

Download PDF:

https://www.famelab.gr/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Consensus-recommendations-on-training-and-competing-in-the-heat_2015.pdf

 

 

Recovery kinetics of knee flexor and extensor strength after a football match

FAME Lab - Recovery kinetics of knee flexor and extensor strength after a football matchDraganidis D, Chatzinikolaou A, Avloniti A, Barbero-Álvarez JC, Mohr M, Malliou P, Gourgoulis V, Deli CK, Douroudos II, Margonis K, Gioftsidou A, Flouris AD, Jamurtas AZ, Koutedakis Y, Fatouros IG. Recovery kinetics of knee flexor and extensor strength after a football match. PLoS One. 2015 Jun 4;10(6):e0128072. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0128072. Erratum in: PLoS One. 2015;10(7):e0133459. Fouris, Andreas D [corrected to Flouris, Andreas D]. PMID: 26043222; PMCID: PMC4456353.

Abstract:

We examined the temporal changes of isokinetic strength performance of knee flexor (KF) and extensor (KE) strength after a football match. Players were randomly assigned to a control (N = 14, participated only in measurements and practices) or an experimental group (N = 20, participated also in a football match).

Participants trained daily during the two days after the match. Match and training overload was monitored with GPS devices. Venous blood was sampled and muscle damage was assessed pre-match, post-match and at 12 h, 36 h and 60 h post-match. Isometric strength as well as eccentric and concentric peak torque of knee flexors and extensors in both limbs (dominant and non-dominant) were measured on an isokinetic dynamometer at baseline and at 12 h, 36 h and 60 h after the match. Functional (KFecc/KEcon) and conventional (KFcon/KEcon) ratios were then calculated. Only eccentric peak torque of knee flexors declined at 60 h after the match in the control group.

In the experimental group: a) isometric strength of knee extensors and knee flexors declined (P<0.05) at 12 h (both limbs) and 36 h (dominant limb only), b) eccentric and concentric peak torque of knee extensors and flexors declined (P<0.05) in both limbs for 36 h at 60°/s and for 60 h at 180°/s with eccentric peak torque of knee flexors demonstrating a greater (P<0.05) reduction than concentric peak torque, c) strength deterioration was greater (P<0.05) at 180°/s and in dominant limb, d) the functional ratio was more sensitive to match-induced fatigue demonstrating a more prolonged decline. Discriminant and regression analysis revealed that strength deterioration and recovery may be related to the amount of eccentric actions performed during the match and athletes’ football-specific conditioning.

Our data suggest that recovery kinetics of knee flexor and extensor strength after a football match demonstrate strength, limb and velocity specificity and may depend on match physical overload and players’ physical conditioning level.

Full Text Link:

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0128072

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https://www.famelab.gr/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Recovery-kinetics-of-knee-flexor-and-extensor-strength-after-a-football-match_2015.pdf

 

 

Effectiveness of cold water immersion for treating exertional heat stress when immediate response is not possible

FAME Lab - Effectiveness of cold water immersion for treating exertional heat stress when immediate response is not possibleFlouris AD, Friesen BJ, Carlson MJ, Casa DJ, Kenny GP. Effectiveness of cold water immersion for treating exertional heat stress when immediate response is not possible. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2015 Jun;25 Suppl 1:229-39. doi: 10.1111/sms.12317. PMID: 25943674.

Abstract:

Immediate treatment with cold water immersion (CWI) is the gold standard for exertional heatstroke. In the field, however, treatment is often delayed due to delayed paramedic response and/or inaccurate diagnosis. We examined the effect of treatment (reduction of rectal temperature to 37.5 °C) delays of 5, 20, and 40 min on core cooling rates in eight exertionally heat-stressed (40.0 °C rectal temperature) individuals.

We found that rectal temperature was elevated above baseline (P < 0.05) at the end of all delay periods (5 min: 40.08 ± 0.32; 20 min: 39.92 ± 0.40; 40 min: 39.57 ± 0.29 °C). Mean arterial pressure was reduced (P < 0.05) below baseline (92 ± 1.8 mm Hg) after all delay periods (5 min: 75 ± 2.6; 20 min: 74 ± 1.7; 40 min: 70 ± 2.1 mm Hg; P > 0.05). Rectal core cooling rates were similar among conditions (5 min: 0.20 ± 0.01; 20 min: 0.17 ± 0.02; 40 min: 0.17 ± 0.01 °C/min; P > 0.05). The rectal temperature afterdrop following CWI was similar across conditions (5 min: 35.95; 20 min: 35.61; 40 min: 35.87 °C; P > 0.05).

We conclude that the effectiveness of 2 °C CWI as a treatment for exertional heat stress remains high even when applied with a delay of 40 min. Therefore, our results support that CWI is the most appropriate treatment for exertional heatstroke as it is capable of quickly reversing hyperthermia even when treatment is commenced with a significant delay.

Full Text Link:

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/sms.12317

 

 

Older firefighters are susceptible to age-related impairments in heat dissipation

FAME Lab - Older Firefighters Are Susceptible to Age-Related Impairments in Heat DissipationKenny GP, Larose J, Wright-Beatty HE, Boulay P, Sigal RJ, Flouris AD. Older firefighters are susceptible to age-related impairments in heat dissipation. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2015 Jun;47(6):1281-90. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000000537. PMID: 25290744.

Abstract:

Purpose: The aging-induced reduction in whole-body heat loss (HL) capacity generates concerns regarding the continued participation of older workers in occupations such as firefighting. We compared HL and change in body heat storage (S) during intermittent exercise in warm/dry and warm/humid conditions among older male firefighters (OLDER, n = 9, age = 54.7 ± 2.1 yr), older (age-matched) nonfirefighters (NON-FF, n = 9, age = 52.8 ± 1.2 yr), and young firefighters (YOUNG, n = 6, age = 26.7 ± 0.8 yr).

Methods: We measured evaporative heat loss and dry heat exchange via the Snellen whole-body direct calorimeter while participants performed four 15-min bouts of cycling at 400 W of metabolic heat production separated by 15-min recovery periods in warm/dry (35 °C, 20% relative humidity) and warm/humid (35 °C, 60% relative humidity) conditions.

Results: We found no differences (P > 0.05) in HL or cumulative S (ΔS) between OLDER and NON-FF in the warm/dry (ΔS: OLDER = 233 ± 26 kJ, NON-FF = 270 ± 29 kJ) or warm/humid (ΔS: OLDER = 548 ± 24 kJ, NON-FF = 504 ± 47 kJ) conditions. The OLDER and NON-FF had lower HL than the YOUNG during exercise in both environmental conditions (P < 0.05). The OLDER stored 40% (P > 0.05) and 46% (P = 0.004) more heat than YOUNG in the warm/dry and warm/humid conditions, respectively. The NON-FF stored 63% (P = 0.016) and 34% (P = 0.025) more heat than the YOUNG in the dry and humid conditions, respectively.

Conclusions: Older firefighters and age-matched nonfirefighters demonstrate similar HL and S during work in the heat. Moreover, HL is significantly reduced in older compared to younger firefighters during exercise in both warm/dry and warm/humid conditions. Consequently, older firefighters may be more susceptible to thermal injury while on duty than their younger counterparts.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25290744/

 

 

Consensus recommendations on training and competing in the heat

FAME Lab - Consensus Recommendations on Training and Competing in the HeatRacinais S, Alonso JM, Coutts AJ, Flouris AD, Girard O, González-Alonso J, Hausswirth C, Jay O, Lee JK, Mitchell N, Nassis GP, Nybo L, Pluim BM, Roelands B, Sawka MN, Wingo J, Périard JD. Consensus Recommendations on Training and Competing in the Heat. Sports Med. 2015 Jul;45(7):925-38. doi: 10.1007/s40279-015-0343-6. PMID: 26002286; PMCID: PMC4473280.

Abstract:

Exercising in the heat induces thermoregulatory and other physiological strain that can lead to impairments in endurance exercise capacity. The purpose of this consensus statement is to provide up-to-date recommendations to optimize performance during sporting activities undertaken in hot ambient conditions. The most important intervention one can adopt to reduce physiological strain and optimize performance is to heat acclimatize. Heat acclimatization should comprise repeated exercise-heat exposures over 1-2 weeks. In addition, athletes should initiate competition and training in an euhydrated state and minimize dehydration during exercise.

Following the development of commercial cooling systems (e.g., cooling vests), athletes can implement cooling strategies to facilitate heat loss or increase heat storage capacity before training or competing in the heat. Moreover, event organizers should plan for large shaded areas, along with cooling and rehydration facilities, and schedule events in accordance with minimizing the health risks of athletes, especially in mass participation events and during the first hot days of the year. Following the recent examples of the 2008 Olympics and the 2014 FIFA World Cup, sport governing bodies should consider allowing additional (or longer) recovery periods between and during events for hydration and body cooling opportunities when competitions are held in the heat.

Full Text Link:

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40279-015-0343-6

Download PDF:

https://www.famelab.gr/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Consensus-recommendations-on-training-and-competing-in-the-heat_2015-1.pdf

 

 

Noninvasive assessment of muscle temperature during rest, exercise, and postexercise recovery in different environments

FAME Lab - Noninvasive assessment of muscle temperature during rest, exercise, and postexercise recovery in different environmentsFlouris AD, Webb P, Kenny GP. Noninvasive assessment of muscle temperature during rest, exercise, and postexercise recovery in different environments. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2015 May 15;118(10):1310-20. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00932.2014. Epub 2015 Mar 26. PMID: 25814638; PMCID: PMC4436983.

Abstract:

We introduced noninvasive and accurate techniques to estimate muscle temperature (Tm) of vastus lateralis (VL), triceps brachii (TB), and trapezius (TRAP) during rest, exercise, and postexercise recovery using the insulation disk (iDISK) technique. Thirty-six volunteers (24 men, 12 women; 73.0 ± 12.2 kg; 1.75 ± 0.07 m; 24.4 ± 5.5 yr; 49.2 ± 6.8 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) peak oxygen uptake) underwent periods of rest, cycling exercise at 40% of peak oxygen uptake, and postexercise recovery in three environments: Normal (24°C, 56% relative humidity), Hot-Humid (30°C, 60% relative humidity), and Hot-Dry (40°C, 24% relative humidity). Participants were randomly allocated into the “model” and the “validation” groups.

Results in the model group demonstrated that Tm (VL: 36.65 ± 1.27°C; TB: 35.76 ± 1.73°C; TRAP: 36.53 ± 0.96°C) was increased compared with iDISK (VL: 35.67 ± 1.71°C; TB: 34.77 ± 2.27°C; TRAP: 35.98 ± 1.34°C) across all environments (P < 0.001). Stepwise regression analysis generated models that accurately predicted Tm (predTm) of VL (R(2) = 0.73-0.91), TB (R(2) = 0.85-0.93), and TRAP (R(2) = 0.84-0.86) using iDISK and the difference between the current iDISK temperature and that recorded between 1 and 4 min before. Cross-validation analyses in the validation group demonstrated small differences (P < 0.05) of no physiological significance, small effect size of the differences, and strong associations (r = 0.85-0.97; P < 0.001) between Tm and predTm.

Moreover, narrow 95% limits of agreement and low percent coefficient of variation were observed between Tm and predTm. It is concluded that the developed noninvasive, practical, and inexpensive techniques provide accurate estimations of VL, TB, and TRAP Tm during rest, cycling exercise, and postexercise recovery.

Full Text Link:

https://journals.physiology.org/doi/pdf/10.1152/japplphysiol.00932.2014

 

 

Human behavioral thermoregulation during exercise in the heat

FAME Lab - Human behavioral thermoregulation during exercise in the heatFlouris AD, Schlader ZJ. Human behavioral thermoregulation during exercise in the heat. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2015 Jun;25 Suppl 1:52-64. doi: 10.1111/sms.12349. PMID: 25943656.

Abstract:

The human capacity to perform prolonged exercise is impaired in hot environments. To address this issue, a number of studies have investigated behavioral aspects of thermoregulation that are recognized as important factors in determining performance. In this review, we evaluated and interpreted the available knowledge regarding the voluntary control of exercise work rate in hot environments.

Our analysis indicated that: (a) Voluntary reductions in exercise work rate in uncompensable heat aid thermoregulation and are, therefore, thermoregulatory behaviors. (b) Unlike thermal behavior during rest, the role of thermal comfort as the ultimate mediator of thermal behavior during exercise in the heat remains uncertain. By contrast, the rating of perceived exertion appears to be the key perceptual controller under such conditions, with thermal perception playing a more modulatory role. (c) Prior to increases in core temperature (when only skin temperature is elevated), reductions in self-selected exercise work rate in the heat are likely mediated by thermal perception (thermal comfort and sensation) and its influence on the rating of perceived exertion.

(d) However, when both core and skin temperatures are elevated, factors associated with cardiovascular strain likely dictate the rate of perceived exertion response, thereby mediating such voluntary reductions in exercise work rate.

Full Text Link:

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/sms.12349

 

 

Consensus recommendations on training and competing in the heat

FAME Lab - Consensus recommendations on training and competing in the heatRacinais S, Alonso JM, Coutts AJ, Flouris AD, Girard O, González-Alonso J, Hausswirth C, Jay O, Lee JK, Mitchell N, Nassis GP, Nybo L, Pluim BM, Roelands B, Sawka MN, Wingo J, Périard JD. Consensus Recommendations on Training and Competing in the Heat. Sports Med. 2015 Jul;45(7):925-38. doi: 10.1007/s40279-015-0343-6. PMID: 26002286; PMCID: PMC4473280.

Abstract:

Exercising in the heat induces thermoregulatory and other physiological strain that can lead to impairments in endurance exercise capacity. The purpose of this consensus statement is to provide up-to-date recommendations to optimise performance during sporting activities undertaken in hot ambient conditions. The most important intervention one can adopt to reduce physiological strain and optimise performance is to heat acclimatise. Heat acclimatisation should comprise repeated exercise-heat exposures over 1–2 weeks. In addition, athletes should initiate competition and training in a euhydrated state and minimise dehydration during exercise.

Following the development of commercial cooling systems (eg, cooling-vest), athletes can implement cooling strategies to facilitate heat loss or increase heat storage capacity before training or competing in the heat. Moreover, event organisers should plan for large shaded areas, along with cooling and rehydration facilities, and schedule events in accordance with minimising the health risks of athletes, especially in mass participation events and during the first hot days of the year. Following the recent examples of the 2008 Olympics and the 2014 FIFA World Cup, sport governing bodies should consider allowing additional (or longer) recovery periods between and during events, for hydration and body cooling opportunities, when competitions are held in the heat.

Full Text Link:

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/sms.12467

 

 

At what level of heat load are age-related impairments in the ability to dissipate heat evident in females?

FAME Lab - At what level of heat load are age-related impairments in the ability to dissipate heat evident in females?Stapleton JM, Poirier MP, Flouris AD, Boulay P, Sigal RJ, Malcolm J, Kenny GP. At what level of heat load are age-related impairments in the ability to dissipate heat evident in females? PLoS One. 2015 Mar 19;10(3):e0119079. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0119079. PMID: 25790024; PMCID: PMC4366400.

Abstract:

Studies have reported that older females have impaired heat loss responses during work in the heat compared to young females. However, it remains unclear at what level of heat stress these differences occur.

Therefore, we examined whole-body heat loss [evaporative (HE) and dry heat loss, via direct calorimetry] and changes in body heat storage (∆Hb, via direct and indirect calorimetry) in 10 young (23±4 years) and 10 older (58±5 years) females matched for body surface area and aerobic fitness (VO2peak) during three 30-min exercise bouts performed at incremental rates of metabolic heat production of 250 (Ex1), 325 (Ex2) and 400 (Ex3) W in the heat (40°C, 15% relative humidity). Exercise bouts were separated by 15 min of recovery. Since dry heat gain was similar between young and older females during exercise (p=0.52) and recovery (p=0.42), differences in whole-body heat loss were solely due to HE.

Our results show that older females had a significantly lower HE at the end of Ex2 (young: 383±34 W; older: 343±39 W, p=0.04) and Ex3 (young: 437±36 W; older: 389±29 W, p=0.008), however no difference was measured at the end of Ex1 (p=0.24). Also, the magnitude of difference in the maximal level of HE achieved between the young and older females became greater with increasing heat loads (Ex1=10.2%, Ex2=11.6% and Ex3=12.4%). Furthermore, a significantly greater ∆Hb was measured for all heat loads for the older females (Ex1: 178±44 kJ; Ex2: 151±38 kJ; Ex3: 216±25 kJ, p=0.002) relative to the younger females (Ex1: 127±35 kJ; Ex2: 96±45 kJ; Ex3: 146±46 kJ).

In contrast, no differences in HE or ∆Hb were observed during recovery (p>0.05). We show that older habitually active females have an impaired capacity to dissipate heat compared to young females during exercise-induced heat loads of ≥325 W when performed in the heat.

Full Text Link:

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0119079

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https://www.famelab.gr/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/At-what-level-of-heat-load-are-age-related-impairments-in-the-ability-to-dissipate-heat-evident-in-females_2015.pdf

 

 

A unifying theory for the functional architecture of endothermic thermoregulation

A unifying theory for the functional architecture of endothermic thermoregulationFlouris AD. A unifying theory for the functional architecture of endothermic thermoregulation. Temperature (Austin). 2014 Dec 31;1(3):162-3. doi: 10.4161/23328940.2014.980138. PMID: 27624651; PMCID: PMC5008715.

Abstract:

Developing a unifying theory for the functional architecture of endothermic thermoregulation has been proven to be a challenging endeavor. Three papers published in this issue of Temperature take a closer look at this problem and add interesting views to our knowledge about the way that endothermic thermoregulation works.

Full Text Link:

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.4161/23328940.2014.980138

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https://www.famelab.gr/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/A-unifying-theory-for-the-functional-architecture-of-endothermic-thermoregulation_2014.pdf

 

 

Links between thermoregulation and aging in endotherms and ectotherms

FAME Lab - Links between thermoregulation and aging in endotherms and ectothermsFlouris AD, Piantoni C. Links between thermoregulation and aging in endotherms and ectotherms. Temperature (Austin). 2014;2(1):73-85. Published 2014 Dec 20. doi:10.4161/23328940.2014.989793.

Abstract:

While the link between thermoregulation and aging is generally accepted, much further research, reflection, and debate is required to elucidate the physiological and molecular pathways that generate the observed thermal-induced changes in lifespan. Our aim in this review is to present, discuss, and scrutinize the thermoregulatory mechanisms that are implicated in the aging process in endotherms and ectotherms. Our analysis demonstrates that low body temperature benefits lifespan in both endothermic and ectothermic organisms.

Research in endotherms has delved deeper into the physiological and molecular mechanisms linking body temperature and longevity. While research in ectotherms has been steadily increasing during the past decades, further mechanistic work is required in order to fully elucidate the underlying phenomena. What is abundantly clear is that both endotherms and ectotherms have a specific temperature zone at which they function optimally. This zone is defended through both physiological and behavioral means and plays a major role on organismal senescence. That low body temperature may be beneficial for lifespan is contrary to conventional medical theory where reduced body temperature is usually considered as a sign of underlying pathology.

Regardless, this phenomenon has been targeted by scientists with the expectation that advancements may compress morbidity, as well as lower disease and mortality risk. The available evidence suggests that lowered body temperature may prolong life span, yet finding the key to temperature regulation remains the problem. While we are still far from a complete understanding of the mechanisms linking body temperature and longevity, we are getting closer.

Full Text Link:

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.4161/23328940.2014.989793

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https://www.famelab.gr/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Links-between-thermoregulation-and-aging-in-endotherms-and-ectotherms_2015.pdf

 

 

Aging impairs heat loss, but when does it matter?

FAME Lab - Aging impairs heat loss, but when does it matter?Stapleton JM, Poirier MP, Flouris AD, Boulay P, Sigal RJ, Malcolm J, Kenny GP. Aging impairs heat loss, but when does it matter? J Appl Physiol (1985). 2015 Feb 1;118(3):299-309. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00722.2014. Epub 2014 Dec 11. PMID: 25505030; PMCID: PMC4312844.

Abstract:

Aging is associated with an attenuated physiological ability to dissipate heat. However, it remains unclear if age-related impairments in heat dissipation only occur above a certain level of heat stress and whether this response is altered by aerobic fitness.

Therefore, we examined changes in whole body evaporative heat loss (HE) as determined using whole body direct calorimetry in young (n = 10; 21 ± 1 yr), untrained middle-aged (n = 10; 48 ± 5 yr), and older (n = 10; 65 ± 3 yr) males matched for body surface area. We also studied a group of trained middle-aged males (n = 10; 49 ± 5 yr) matched for body surface area with all groups and for aerobic fitness with the young group. Participants performed intermittent aerobic exercise (30-min exercise bouts separated by 15-min rest) in the heat (40°C and 15% relative humidity) at progressively greater fixed rates of heat production equal to 300 (Ex1), 400 (Ex2), and 500 (Ex3) W.

Results showed that HE was significantly lower in middle-aged untrained (Ex2: 426 ± 34; and Ex3: 497 ± 17 W) and older (Ex2: 424 ± 38; and Ex3: 485 ± 44 W) compared with young (Ex2: 472 ± 42; and Ex3: 558 ± 51 W) and middle-aged trained (474 ± 21; Ex3: 552 ± 23 W) males at the end of Ex2 and Ex3 (P < 0.05). No differences among groups were observed during recovery. We conclude that impairments in HE in older and middle-aged untrained males occur at exercise-induced heat loads of ≥400 W when performed in a hot environment. These impairments in untrained middle-aged males can be minimized through regular aerobic exercise training.

Full Text Link:

https://journals.physiology.org/doi/pdf/10.1152/japplphysiol.00722.2014

 

 

The human thermoregulatory system and its response to thermal stress

FAME Lab - The human thermoregulatory system and its response to thermal stress Kenny GP, Flouris AD. 13-The human thermoregulatory system and its response to thermal stress, Editor(s): Faming Wang, Chuansi Gao, In Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles, Protective Clothing, Woodhead Publishing, 2014, Pages 319-365, ISBN 9781782420323, https://doi.org/10.1533/9781782420408.3.319. (https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781782420323500132).

Abstract:

An overview of the physiology of human thermoregulation is presented, including a discussion of the principle of heat balance and the various heat exchange pathways together with physiological adaptations during thermal challenges. Thermoeffector responses (i.e., eccrine sweating, cutaneous vasodilation) during heat stress are examined, as well as the thermoregulatory mechanisms activated during passive heat/cold stress, exercise, and postexercise, such as shivering and non shivering thermogenesis. Aspects related to nonthermal modulators of thermoeffector responses are explored and the effects of body composition, aerobic fitness, heat acclimation, sex, age, chronic disease (i.e., diabetes), hydration, and cardiovascular function on the body’s capacity to dissipate heat are discussed.

Full Text Link:

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/288498076_The_human_thermoregulatory_system_and_its_response_to_thermal_stress

 

 

A review on ergonomics of headgear: thermal effects

FAME Lab - A review on ergonomics of headgear: Thermal effectsBogerd CP, Aerts JM, Annaheim S, Bröde P, Bruyne G, Flouris AD, Kuklane K, Sotto Mayor T, Rossi RM (2015). A review on ergonomics of headgear: Thermal effects. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics. 45. 1-12. 10.1016/j.ergon.2014.10.004.

Abstract:

The thermal effects related to wearing headgear are complex and different studies have investigated single parts of this topic. This review aims at summarizing the different findings to give a complete overview on this topic as well as to suggest new perspectives.

Headgear increases head insulation and therefore is mainly problematic under warm conditions, which is the focus of this review. Helmets do not affect physiological parameters other than the local skin temperature and sweat rate. However, the head is among the most sensitive body parts related to thermal comfort, thereby directly affecting the willingness to wear headgear. Several methods have been used to study thermal aspects of headgear, which could be categorized as (i) numerical, (ii) biophysical, (iii) combined numerical and biophysical, and (iv)user trials.

The application of these methods established that heat transfer mainly takes place through radiation and convection. Headgear parameters relevant to these heat transfer pathways, are reviewed and suggestions are provided for improving existing headgear concepts and developing new concepts, ultimately leading to more accepted headgear. Relevance to industry: This review provides a sound basis for improving existing headgear concepts. Firstly, a concise overview of headgear research related to thermal effects is given, leading to empirically based improvement suggestions and identification of research fields with a high potential. Finally, relevant research methods are described facilitating evaluation in R&D processes.

Full Text Link:

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/271714546_A_review_on_ergonomics_of_headgear_Thermal_effects

 

 

Association between habitual physical activity and brown adipose tissue activity in individuals undergoing PET-CT scan

FAME Lab - Association between habitual physical activity and brown adipose tissue activity in individuals undergoing PET-CT scanDinas PC, Nikaki A, Jamurtas AZ, Prassopoulos V, Efthymiadou R, Koutedakis Y, Georgoulias P, Flouris AD. Association between habitual physical activity and brown adipose tissue activity in individuals undergoing PET-CT scan. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2015 Jan;82(1):147-54. doi: 10.1111/cen.12620. Epub 2014 Oct 27. PMID: 25262810.

Abstract:

Objective: Augmented brown adipose tissue (BAT) mass and activity lead to higher basic metabolic rate which is beneficial against obesity. Our aim was to investigate whether habitual (i.e. usual weekly participation) physical activity is linked with BAT activity and mass in humans, in a group of patients undergoing (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scanning.

Design: Cross-sectional study. Patients: Forty patients with cancer [26 male; 14 female; age 52·7 ± 17·5; body mass index (BMI) 26·4 ± 4·5]. Measurements: Patients completed the ‘usual week’ form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and underwent assessment of BAT activity/mass via (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT.

Results: We detected a significant association between habitual physical activity (METs-minute/week) and BAT activity [normalized by body weight (BW) (τ = 0·28, P = 0·02), body surface area (BSA) (τ = 0·29, P = 0·02) and lean body mass (LBM) (τ = 0·38, P = 0·002)]. We also found a significant negative relationship between BMI and BAT activity [normalized by BW (τ = -0·30, P = 0·006), BSA (τ = -0·31, P = 0·004) and LBM (τ = -0·45, P = 0·001)] as well as a significant negative relationship between age and BAT activity [normalized by LBM (τ = -0·28, P = 0·01)]. The results also indicate significant differences between low/moderate/high levels of habitual physical activity and BAT activity (P < 0·05). Moreover, BAT activity was different across the BMI categories (normal/overweight/obese) in both sexes (P < 0·05). Finally, BAT activity was greater in women than in men (P < 0·05).

Conclusions: Increased participation in habitual physical activity is associated with higher BAT activity. Moreover, individuals with normal BMI demonstrate higher BAT activity compared to overweight and obese individuals. Finally, age is inversely linked with BAT activity, while women demonstrate higher BAT activity than men.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25262810/

 

 

Prevalence of low bone mineral density in female dancers

FAME Lab - Prevalence of low bone mineral density in female dancersAmorim T, Wyon M, Maia J, Machado JC, Marques F, Metsios GS, Flouris AD, Koutedakis Y. Prevalence of low bone mineral density in female dancers. Sports Med. 2015 Feb;45(2):257-68. doi: 10.1007/s40279-014-0268-5. PMID: 25281333.

Abstract:

Background and objective: While some authors report that dancers have reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and increased risk of osteoporosis, others have stressed the positive effects of dance training on developing healthy BMD. Given the existing controversy, the aim of this systematic review was to examine the best evidence-based information available in relation to female dancers.

Methods: Four databases (Web of Science, PubMed, EBSCO, Scopus) and two dance science journals (Journal of Dance Medicine and Science and Medical Problems of Performing Artists) were searched for relevant material using the keywords “dance”, “ballet”, “BMD”, “bone density”, “osteoporosis” and “female athlete triad syndrome”. A total of 257 abstracts were screened using selected inclusion (studies involving bone measurements in dancers) and exclusion (editorials, opinion papers, chapters in books, narrative reviews and non-English language papers) criteria according to PRISMA guidelines. Following the above screening, a total of 108 abstracts were identified as potentially relevant. After the exclusion of conference proceedings, review papers, studies focusing only in male dancers and studies in which dancers’ information were combined with other athletes, the eligible papers were subsequently assessed using the GRADE system and grouped according to: (1) prevalence of low BMD and associated factors, (2) incidence of low BMD and risk factors, (3) prevention/treatment of low BMD in dancers, and (4) other studies.

Results: Of the 257 abstracts that were initially screened, only 35 studies were finally considered. Only one of these 35 was of high quality, while the remaining 34 were of relatively low quality. Seven studies reported prevalence of low BMD and associated factors, 10 reported associated factors with no prevalence data, while one reported prevalence with no associated factors data. One study cited risk factors, while another one elaborated on the treatment of low BMD in dancers. The remaining 15 studies were classified as “other studies”.

Conclusions: It remains unclear whether low BMD is prevalent in female dancers. The present review highlights the need for high-quality BMD research in this area.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25281333/

 

 

Treatment of exertional heat stress developed during low or moderate physical work

FAME Lab - Treatment of exertional heat stress developed during low or moderate physical workFlouris AD, Wright-Beatty HE, Friesen BJ, Casa DJ, Kenny GP. Treatment of exertional heat stress developed during low or moderate physical work. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2014 Dec;114(12):2551-60. doi: 10.1007/s00421-014-2971-1. Epub 2014 Aug 15. PMID: 25118838.

Abstract:

Purpose: We examined whether treatment for exertional heat stress via ice water immersion (IWI) or natural recovery is affected by the intensity of physical work performed and, thus, the time taken to reach hyperthermia.

Methods: Nine adults (18-45 years; 17.9 ± 2.8 percent body fat; 57.0 ± 2.0 mL kg(-1) min(-1) peak oxygen uptake) completed four conditions incorporating either walking or jogging at 40 °C (20 % relative humidity) while wearing a non-permeable rain poncho. Upon reaching 39.5 °C rectal temperature (Tre), participants recovered either via IWI in 2 °C water or via natural recovery (seated in a ~29 °C environment) until T re returned to 38 °C.

Results: Cooling rates were greater in the IWI [Tre: 0.24 °C min(-1); esophageal temperature (Tes): 0.24 °C min(-1)] than the natural recovery (Tre and Tes: 0.03 °C min(-1)) conditions (p < 0.001) with no differences between the two moderate and the two low intensity conditions (p > 0.05). Cooling rates for T re and T es were greater in the 39.0-38.5 °C (Tre: 0.19 °C min(-1); Tes: 0.31 °C min(-1)) compared with the 39.5-39.0 °C (Tre: 0.11 °C min(-1); Tes: 0.13 °C min(-1)) period across conditions (p < 0.05). Similar reductions in heart rate and mean arterial pressure were observed during recovery across conditions (p > 0.05), albeit occurred faster during IWI. Percent change in plasma volume at the end of natural recovery and IWI was 5.96 and 9.58%, respectively (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: The intensity of physical work performed and, thus, the time taken to reach hyperthermia does not affect the effectiveness of either IWI treatment or natural recovery. Therefore, while the path to hyperthermia may be different for each patient, the path to recovery must always be immediate IWI treatment.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25118838/

 

 

Changes in heart rate variability during the induction and decay of heat acclimation

FAME Lab - Changes in heart rate variability during the induction and decay of heat acclimationFlouris AD, Poirier MP, Bravi A, Wright-Beatty HE, Herry C, Seely AJ, Kenny GP. Changes in heart rate variability during the induction and decay of heat acclimation. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2014 Oct;114(10):2119-28. doi: 10.1007/s00421-014-2935-5. Epub 2014 Jun 24. PMID: 24957416.

Abstract:

Purpose: We evaluated the changes in core temperature, heart rate, and heart rate variability (HRV) during the induction and decay of heat acclimation.

Methods: Ten males (23 ± 3 years; 79.5 ± 3.5 kg; 15.2 ± 4.5 percent body fat; 51.13 ± 4.61 mLO(2)∙kg(-1)∙min(-1) peak oxygen uptake) underwent a 14-day heat acclimation protocol comprising of 90-min cycling at ~50 % peak oxygen uptake at 40 °C and ~20 % relative humidity. Core temperature, heart rate, and 102 HRV measures were recorded during a heat tolerance test conducted at baseline (day 0) and at the end of the induction (day 14) and decay (day 28) phases.

Results: Heat acclimation resulted in significantly reduced core temperature [rectal (χ (2) = 1298.14, p < 0.001); esophageal (χ (2) = 1069.88, p < 0.001)] and heart rate (χ (2) = 1230.17, p < 0.001). Following the decay phase, 26, 40, and 60 % of the heat acclimation-induced reductions in rectal temperature, esophageal temperature, and heart rate, respectively, were lost. Heat acclimation was accompanied by profound and broad changes in HRV: at the end of the induction phase, 75 of the 102 variability measures computed were significantly different (p < 0.001), compared to only 47 of the 102 at the end of the decay phase.

Conclusions: Heat acclimation is accompanied by reduced core temperature, significant bradycardia, and marked alterations in HRV, which we interpret as being related to vagal dominance. The observed changes in core temperature persist for at least 2 weeks of non-exposure to heat, while the changes in heart rate and HRV decay faster and are only partly evident after 2 weeks of non-exposure to heat.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24957416/

 

 

Molecular pathways linking non-shivering thermogenesis and obesity: focusing on brown adipose tissue development

FAME Lab - Molecular pathways linking non-shivering thermogenesis and obesity: focusing on brown adipose tissue developmentValente A, Jamurtas AZ, Koutedakis Y, Flouris AD. Molecular pathways linking non-shivering thermogenesis and obesity: focusing on brown adipose tissue development. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 2015 Feb;90(1):77-88. doi: 10.1111/brv.12099. Epub 2014 Apr 7. PMID: 24708171.

Abstract:

An increase in energy intake and/or a decrease in energy expenditure lead to fat storage, causing overweight and obesity phenotypes. The objective of this review was to analyse, for the first time using a systematic approach, all published evidence from the past 8 years regarding the molecular pathways linking non-shivering thermogenesis and obesity in mammals, focusing on mechanisms involved in brown adipose tissue development.

Two major databases were scanned from 2006 to 2013 using ‘brown adipose tissue’ AND ‘uncoupling protein-1’ AND ‘mammalian thermoregulation’ AND ‘obesity’ as key words. A total of 61 articles were retrieved using the search criteria. The available research used knockout methodologies, various substances, molecules and agonist treatments, or different temperature and diet conditions, to assess the molecular pathways linking non-shivering thermogenesis and obesity. By integrating the results of the evaluated animal and human studies, our analysis identified specific molecules that enhance non-shivering thermogenesis and metabolism by: (i) stimulating ‘brite’ (brown-like) cell development in white adipose tissue; (ii) increasing uncoupling protein-1 expression in brite adipocytes; and (iii) augmenting brown and/or brite adipose tissue mass.

The latter can be also increased through low temperature, hibernation and/or molecules involved in brown adipocyte differentiation. Cold stimuli and/or certain molecules activate uncoupling protein-1 in the existing brown adipocytes, thus increasing total energy expenditure by a magnitude proportional to the number of available brown adipocytes. Future research should address the interplay between body mass, brown adipose tissue mass, as well as the main molecules involved in brite cell development.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24708171/

 

 

Instruments to assess secondhand smoke exposure in large cohorts of never smokers: the smoke scales

FAME Lab - Instruments to assess secondhand smoke exposure in large cohorts of never smokers: the smoke scalesMisailidi M, Tzatzarakis MN, Kavvalakis MP, Koutedakis Y, Tsatsakis AM, Flouris AD. Instruments to assess secondhand smoke exposure in large cohorts of never smokers: the smoke scales. PLoS One. 2014 Jan 21;9(1):e85809. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0085809. PMID: 24465719; PMCID: PMC3897519.

Abstract:

The objectives of this study were to: (i) to develop questionnaires that can identify never-smoking children and adults experiencing increased exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS+), (ii) to determine their validity against hair nicotine, and (iii) assess their reliability.

A sample of 191 children (85 males; 106 females; 7-18 years) and 95 adult (23 males; 72 females; 18-62 years) never-smokers consented to hair nicotine analysis and answered a large number of questions assessing all sources of SHS. A randomly-selected 30% answered the questions again after 20-30 days. Prevalence of SHS+ in children and adults was 0.52±0.07 and 0.67±0.10, respectively (p<0.05). The Smoke Scale for Children (SS-C) and the Smoke Scale for Adults (SS-A) were developed via factor analysis and included nine questions each.

Positivity criteria for SS-C and SS-A via receiver operating characteristics curve analysis were identified at >16.5 and >16, respectively. Significant Kappa agreement (p<0.05) was confirmed when comparing the SS-C and SS-A to hair nicotine concentration. Reliability analyses demonstrated that the SS-C and SS-A scores obtained on two different days are highly correlated (p<0.001) and not significantly different (p>0.05). Area under the curve and McNemar’s Chi-square showed no pair-wise differences in sensitivity and specificity at the cutoff point between the two different days for SS-C and SS-A (p>0.05).

We conclude that the SS-C and the SS-A represent valid, reliable, practical, and inexpensive instruments to identify children and adult never-smokers exposed to increased SHS. Future research should aim to further increase the validity of the two questionnaires.

Full Text Link:

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0085809

Download PDF:

https://www.famelab.gr/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Instruments-to-assess-secondhand-smoke-exposure-in-large-cohorts-of-never-smokers-the-smoke-scales_2014.pdf

 

 

Heart rate variability during exertional heat stress: effects of heat production and treatment

FAME Lab - Heart rate variability during exertional heat stress: effects of heat production and treatmentFlouris AD, Bravi A, Wright-Beatty HE, Green G, Seely AJ, Kenny GP. Heart rate variability during exertional heat stress: effects of heat production and treatment. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2014 Apr;114(4):785-92. doi: 10.1007/s00421-013-2804-7. Epub 2014 Jan 5. PMID: 24390688.

Abstract:

Purpose: We assessed the efficacy of different treatments (i.e., treatment with ice water immersion vs. natural recovery) and the effect of exercise intensities (i.e., low vs. high) for restoring heart rate variability (HRV) indices during recovery from exertional heat stress (EHS).

Methods: Nine healthy adults (26 ± 3 years, 174.2 ± 3.8 cm, 74.6 ± 4.3 kg, 17.9 ± 2.8 % body fat, 57 ± 2 mL·kg·(-1) min(-1) peak oxygen uptake) completed four EHS sessions incorporating either walking (4.0-4.5 km·h(-1), 2 % incline) or jogging (~7.0 km·h(-1), 2 % incline) on a treadmill in a hot-dry environment (40 °C, 20-30 % relative humidity) while wearing a non-permeable rain poncho for a slow or fast rate of rectal temperature (T re) increase, respectively. Upon reaching a T re of 39.5 °C, participants recovered until T re returned to 38 °C either passively or with whole-body immersion in 2 °C water. A comprehensive panel of 93 HRV measures were computed from the time, frequency, time-frequency, scale-invariant, entropy and non-linear domains.

Results: Exertional heat stress significantly affected 60/93 HRV measures analysed. Analyses during recovery demonstrated that there were no significant differences between HRV measures that had been influenced by EHS at the end of passive recovery vs. whole-body cooling treatment (p > 0.05). Nevertheless, the cooling treatment required statistically significantly less time to reduce T re (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: While EHS has a marked effect on autonomic nervous system modulation and whole-body immersion in 2 °C water results in faster cooling, there were no observed differences in restoration of autonomic heart rate modulation as measured by HRV indices with whole-body cold-water immersion compared to passive recovery in thermoneutral conditions.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24390688/

 

 

Exercise and exposure to heat following bovine colostrum supplementation: a review of gastrointestinal and immune function

Exercise and exposure to heat following bovine colostrum supplementation: a review of gastrointestinal and immune functionCarrillo AE, Koutedakis Y, Flouris AD. Exercise and exposure to heat following bovine colostrum supplementation: a review of gastrointestinal and immune function. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2013 Nov 3;59(1):84-8. PMID: 24200023.

Abstract:

Colostrum is the first milk produced by mammalian mothers and is essential for the health and survival of the newborn. Bovine colostrum (BC) has greater concentrations of the bioactive components (i.e. immune and growth factors) than those found in human colostrum. As a result, BC supplementation has been recently adopted by many sport competitors as a means of enhancing immune function as well as improving performance.

Improvements in physical performance associated with BC supplementation may stem from the ability of BC to maintain gastrointestinal (GI) integrity by decreasing GI permeability. During exercise in the heat, blood flow to the GI tract is reduced that leads to endotoxin leakage into circulation. Endotoxins, such as lipopolysaccharide, can trigger an inflammatory cascade leading to physiological strain that, in turn, increases heat storage and decreases time to exhaustion. GI permeability is lessened during passive heat stress following BC supplementation, but the influence of BC supplementation on GI function during exercise heat stress remains to be determined.

The implications of endotoxemia during exercise in the heat is a matter of growing importance and warrants further study given the global increase in ambient temperatures during sport competitions.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24200023/

 

 

Do older adults experience greater thermal strain during heat waves?

FAME Lab - Do older adults experience greater thermal strain during heat waves?Stapleton JM, Larose J, Simpson C, Flouris AD, Sigal RJ, and Kenny GP. Do older adults experience greater thermal strain during heat waves?. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism. 39(3): 292-298. https://doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2013-0317.

Abstract:

Heat waves are the cause of many preventable deaths around the world, especially among older adults and in countries with more temperate climates. In the present study, we examined the effects of age on whole-body heat loss and heat storage during passive exposure to environmental conditions representative of the upper temperature extremes experienced in Canada.

Direct and indirect calorimetry measured whole-body evaporative heat loss and dry heat exchange, as well as the change in body heat content. Twelve younger (21 ± 3 years) and 12 older (65 ± 5 years) adults with similar body weight (younger: 72.0 ± 4.4 kg; older: 80.1 ± 4.2 kg) and body surface area (younger: 1.8 ± 0.1 m(2); older: 2.0 ± 0.1 m(2)) rested for 2 h in a hot-dry [36.5 °C, 20% relative humidity (RH)] or hot-humid (36.5 °C, 60% RH) environment.

In both conditions, evaporative heat loss was not significantly different between groups (dry: p = 0.758; humid: p = 0.814). However, the rate of dry heat gain was significantly greater (by approx. 10 W) for older adults relative to younger adults during the hot-dry (p = 0.032) and hot-humid exposure (p = 0.019). Consequently, the cumulative change in body heat content after 2 h of rest was significantly greater in older adults in the hot-dry (older: 212 ± 25 kJ; younger: 131 ± 27 kJ, p = 0.018) as well as the hot-humid condition (older: 426 ± 37 kJ; younger: 317 ± 45 kJ, p = 0.037). These findings demonstrate that older individuals store more heat during short exposures to dry and humid heat, suggesting that they may experience increased levels of thermal strain in such conditions than people of younger age.

Full Text Link:

https://cdnsciencepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1139/apnm-2013-0317

 

 

Effects of milk bioactive compounds on health

Effects of milk bioactive compounds on healthArmand M, Flouris AD. Effects of milk bioactive compounds on health. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2013;59(1):1-3. PMID: 24377120.

No abstract available.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24377120/

 

 

Autonomic nervous system modulation during accidental syncope induced by heat and orthostatic stress

FAME Lab - Autonomic nervous system modulation during accidental syncope induced by heat and orthostatic stressCarrillo AE, Cheung SS, Flouris AD. Autonomic nervous system modulation during accidental syncope induced by heat and orthostatic stress. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2013 Jul;84(7):722-5. doi: 10.3357/asem.3573.2013. PMID: 23855068.

Abstract:

Background: Heart rate variability (HRV) indices (LF, HF, LF/HF, RMSSD, and pNN50) under combined heat and orthostatic stress leading up to and during accidental syncope (EXP group: one man, two women; age: 23.7 +/- 2.9 yr) were compared with data collected from subjects who did not experience syncope (CON group: one man, two women; age: 22.3 +/- 1.5 yr).

Methods: Minute averages of HRV indices were collected during 5 min at baseline (Base), 5 min leading up to syncope (PRE), and 5 min during syncope (Syncope) (i.e., 2 min leading up to, 1 min during, and 2 min post-syncope). Data were individually analyzed as 1-min means during Syncope as well as 5-min means during Base, PRE, and Syncope.

Results: Between-group results revealed that LF and LF/HF were significantly higher and HF was significantly lower in EXP compared to CON subjects at minutes 1, 2, and 3 during Syncope. Further, RMSSD (CON: 161.1 +/- 37.0 ms; EXP: 17.5 +/- 13.3 ms) and pNN50 (CON: 26.4 +/- 36.3%; EXP: 1.3 +/- 1.2%) were significantly lower in EXP compared to CON subjects at minute 3 during Syncope. During Syncope, 5-min averages of LF (CON: 46.1 +/- 13.9 nu; EXP: 77.5 +/- 6.6 nu) and LF/HF (CON: 1.0 0.5; EXP: 3.8 +/- 1.7) were significantly higher, and HF (CON: 53.9 +/- 13.9 nu; EXP: 22.5 +/ 1 6.6 nu) was significantly lower in EXP subjects compared to CON.

Discussion: Our findings show that autonomic nervous system modulation leading up to and during accidental syncope induced by heat and orthostatic stress is characterized by an exaggerated suppression of parasympathetic and elevation of sympathetic activity. Thus, elevated LF and LF/HF, and lower HF, RMSSD, and pNN50 may represent risk factors for accidental syncope.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23855068/

 

 

Exposure to secondhand smoke promotes sympathetic activity and cardiac muscle cachexia

FAME Lab - Exposure to secondhand smoke promotes sympathetic activity and cardiac muscle cachexiaFlouris AD, Dinas PC, Tzatzarakis MN, Metsios GS, Kostikas K, Jamurtas AZ, Tsatsakis AM, Koutedakis Y. Exposure to secondhand smoke promotes sympathetic activity and cardiac muscle cachexia. Int J Environ Health Res. 2014;24(3):189-94. doi: 10.1080/09603123.2013.800966. Epub 2013 Jun 26. PMID: 23802614.

Abstract:

Recent trials demonstrated that a single brief exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) generates acute adverse health effects. We evaluated the acute (immediately after exposure) and short-term (0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h after exposure) effects of SHS on cardiac autonomic control and myocardial integrity. Nineteen adult healthy never-smokers underwent a 1 h exposure to SHS at bar/restaurant levels and a 1 h control exposure.

Heart rate variability (HRV), serum cotinine, and six cardiac protein markers were assessed before, during, and up to four hours following each exposure. SHS reduced the standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals and increased cotinine levels, creatine kinase (CK)-MB, and myoglobin (p < 0.05). We conclude that acute exposure to SHS suppresses HRV and augments CK-MB and myoglobin. The SHS-induced elevations in CK-MB and myoglobin may reflect a generalized lytic state, especially of the cardiac muscle, which is apparent for at least 2 h following the SHS exposure.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23802614/

 

 

Acute effects of second-hand smoke on complete blood count

FAME Lab - Acute effects of second-hand smoke on complete blood count Dinas PC, Metsios GS, Jamurtas AZ, Tzatzarakis MN, Wallace Hayes A, Koutedakis Y, Tsatsakis AM, Flouris AD. Acute effects of second-hand smoke on complete blood count. Int J Environ Health Res. 2014;24(1):56-62. doi: 10.1080/09603123.2013.782603. Epub 2013 Apr 2. PMID: 23544435.

Abstract:

We assessed the acute effects of a 1-h exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) on complete blood count (CBC) markers in a controlled simulated bar/restaurant environment. Nineteen adult never-smokers completed a 1-h .exposure to SHS at bar/restaurant levels, and a 1-h exposure to normal room air. Blood samples were collected at the baseline at 30 min during each exposure, and at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 4 h after each exposure.

The values of white blood cells (WBC) at 1 h (p = 0.010), 3 h (p = 0.040), and 4 h (p = 0.008) following SHS were significantly increased compared with the baseline values. Also, there was a positive association between the WBC and cotinine levels (r = 0.28, p = 0.007). A 1-h exposure to SHS at bar/restaurant levels significantly increased the WBC for at least 4 h following the exposure time. This effect of SHS on WBC has dose-response characteristics and should be considered to prescribing CBC.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23544435/

 

 

Acute impact of active and passive electronic cigarette smoking on serum cotinine and lung function

Acute impact of active and passive electronic cigarette smoking on serum cotinine and lung functionFlouris AD, Chorti MS, Poulianiti KP, Jamurtas AZ, Kostikas K, Tzatzarakis MN, Wallace Hayes A, Tsatsakis AM, Koutedakis Y. Acute impact of active and passive electronic cigarette smoking on serum cotinine and lung function. Inhal Toxicol. 2013 Feb;25(2):91-101. doi: 10.3109/08958378.2012.758197. PMID: 23363041.

Abstract:

Context: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are becoming increasingly popular yet their effects on health remain unknown.

Objective: To conduct the first comprehensive and standardized assessment of the acute impact of active and passive e-cigarette smoking on serum cotinine and lung function, as compared to active and passive tobacco cigarette smoking.

Materials and methods: Fifteen smokers (≥15 cigarettes/day; seven females; eight males) and 15 never-smokers (seven females; eight males) completed this repeated-measures controlled study. Smokers underwent a control session, an active tobacco cigarette (their favorite brand) smoking session and an active e-cigarette smoking session. Never-smokers underwent a control session, a passive tobacco cigarette smoking session and a passive e-cigarette smoking session. Serum cotinine, lung function, exhaled carbon monoxide and nitric oxide were assessed. The level of significance was set at p ≤ 0.001 to adjust for multiple comparisons.

Results: e-Cigarettes and tobacco cigarettes generated similar (p > 0.001) effects on serum cotinine levels after active (60.6 ± 34.3 versus 61.3 ± 36.6 ng/ml) and passive (2.4 ± 0.9 versus 2.6 ± 0.6 ng/ml) smoking. Neither a brief session of active e-cigarette smoking (indicative: 3% reduction in FEV1/FVC) nor a 1 h passive e-cigarette smoking (indicative: 2.3% reduction in FEV1/FVC) significantly affected the lung function (p > 0.001). In contrast, active (indicative: 7.2% reduction in FEV1/FVC; p < 0.001) but not passive (indicative: 3.4% reduction in FEV1/FVC; p = 0.005) tobacco cigarette smoking undermined lung function.

Conclusion: Regarding short-term usage, the studied e-cigarettes generate smaller changes in lung function but similar nicotinergic impact to tobacco cigarettes. Future research should target the health effects of long-term e-cigarette usage, including the effects of nicotine dosage.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23363041/

 

 

Secondhand smoke exposure induces acutely airway acidification and oxidative stress

FAME Lab - Secondhand smoke exposure induces acutely airway acidification and oxidative stressKostikas K, Minas M, Nikolaou E, Papaioannou AI, Liakos P, Gougoura S, Gourgoulianis KI, Dinas PC, Metsios GS, Jamurtas AZ, Flouris AD, Koutedakis Y. Secondhand smoke exposure induces acutely airway acidification and oxidative stress. Respir Med. 2013 Feb;107(2):172-9. doi: 10.1016/j.rmed.2012.10.017. Epub 2012 Dec 4. PMID: 23218453.

Abstract:

Previous studies have shown that secondhand smoke induces lung function impairment and increases proinflammatory cytokines. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute effects of secondhand smoke on airway acidification and airway oxidative stress in never-smokers.

In a randomized controlled cross-over trial, 18 young healthy never-smokers were assessed at baseline and 0, 30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 min after one-hour secondhand smoke exposure at bar/restaurant levels. Exhaled NO and CO measurements, exhaled breath condensate collection (for pH, H(2)O(2) and NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-) measurements) and spirometry were performed at all time-points. Secondhand smoke exposure induced increases in serum cotinine and exhaled CO that persisted until 240 min. Exhaled breath condensate pH decreased immediately after exposure (p < 0.001) and returned to baseline by 180 min, whereas H(2)O(2) increased at 120 min and remained increased at 240 min (p = 0.001).

No changes in exhaled NO and NO(2)/NO(3) were observed, while decreases in FEV(1) (p < 0.001) and FEV(1)/FVC (p < 0.001) were observed after exposure and returned to baseline by 180 min. A 1-h exposure to secondhand smoke induced airway acidification and increased airway oxidative stress, accompanied by significant impairment of lung function. Despite the reversal in EBC pH and lung function, airway oxidative stress remained increased 4 h after the exposure. Clinical trial registration number (EudraCT): 2009-013545-28.

Full Text Link:

https://www.resmedjournal.com/action/showPdf?pii=S0954-6111%2812%2900400-3

 

 

Acute effects of electronic and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood count

FAME Lab - Acute effects of electronic and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood countFlouris AD, Poulianiti KP, Chorti MS, Jamurtas AZ, Kouretas D, Owolabi EO, Tzatzarakis MN, Tsatsakis AM, Koutedakis Y. Acute effects of electronic and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood count. Food Chem Toxicol. 2012 Oct;50(10):3600-3. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2012.07.025. Epub 2012 Jul 31. PMID: 22858449.

Abstract:

The World Health Organisation called for research assessing the safety of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette). We evaluated the acute effect of active and passive e-cigarette and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood count (CBC) markers in 15 smokers and 15 never-smokers, respectively. Smokers underwent a control session, an active tobacco cigarette smoking session, and an active e-cigarette smoking session. Never-smokers underwent a control session, a passive tobacco cigarette smoking session, and a passive e-cigarette smoking session.

The results demonstrated that CBC indices remained unchanged during the control session and the active and passive e-cigarette smoking sessions (P>0.05). Active and passive tobacco cigarette smoking increased white blood cell, lymphocyte, and granulocyte counts for at least one hour in smokers and never smokers (P<0.05).

It is concluded that acute active and passive smoking using the e-cigarettes tested in the current study does not influence CBC indices in smokers and never smokers, respectively. In contrast, acute active and passive tobacco cigarette smoking increase the secondary proteins of acute inflammatory load for at least one hour. More research is needed to evaluate chemical safety issues and other areas of consumer product safety of e-cigarettes, because the nicotine content in the liquids used may vary considerably.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22858449/

 

 

Respiratory and immune response to maximal physical exertion following exposure to secondhand smoke in healthy adults

FAME Lab - Respiratory and immune response to maximal physical exertion following exposure to secondhand smoke in healthy adultsFlouris AD, Metsios GS, Carrillo AE, Jamurtas AZ, Stivaktakis PD, Tzatzarakis MN, Tsatsakis AM, Koutedakis Y. Respiratory and immune response to maximal physical exertion following exposure to secondhand smoke in healthy adults. PLoS One. 2012;7(2):e31880. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0031880. Epub 2012 Feb 15. Erratum in: PLoS One. 20127(4): doi/10.1371/annotation/f2eb18a5-4dd2-49c1-95e9-2299402ee5a6. Carrill, Andres E [corrected to Carrillo, Andres E]. PMID: 22355401; PMCID: PMC3280209.

Abstract:

We assessed the cardiorespiratory and immune response to physical exertion following secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure through a randomized crossover experiment. Data were obtained from 16 (8 women) non-smoking adults during and following a maximal oxygen uptake cycling protocol administered at baseline and at 0-, 1-, and 3- hours following 1-hour of SHS set at bar/restaurant carbon monoxide levels. We found that SHS was associated with a 12% decrease in maximum power output, an 8.2% reduction in maximal oxygen consumption, a 6% increase in perceived exertion, and a 6.7% decrease in time to exhaustion (P<0.05).

Moreover, at 0-hours almost all respiratory and immune variables measured were adversely affected (P<0.05). For instance, FEV(1) values at 0-hours dropped by 17.4%, while TNF-α increased by 90.1% (P<0.05). At 3-hours mean values of cotinine, perceived exertion and recovery systolic blood pressure in both sexes, IL4, TNF-α and IFN-γ in men, as well as FEV(1)/FVC, percent predicted FEV(1), respiratory rate, and tidal volume in women remained different compared to baseline (P<0.05). It is concluded that a 1-hour of SHS at bar/restaurant levels adversely affects the cardiorespiratory and immune response to maximal physical exertion in healthy nonsmokers for at least three hours following SHS.

Full Text Link:

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0031880

Download PDF:

https://www.famelab.gr/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Respiratory-and-immune-response-to-maximal-physical-exertion-following-exposure-to-secondhand-smoke-in-healthy-adults_2012.pdf

 

 

The effect of a covert manipulation of ambient temperature on heat storage and voluntary exercise intensity

FAME Lab - The effect of a covert manipulation of ambient temperature on heat storage and voluntary exercise intensityHartley GL, Flouris AD, Plyley MJ, Cheung SS. The effect of a covert manipulation of ambient temperature on heat storage and voluntary exercise intensity. Physiol Behav. 2012 Mar 20;105(5):1194-201. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2011.12.017. Epub 2011 Dec 29. PMID: 22226992.

Abstract:

The modulation of sub-maximal voluntary exercise intensity during heat stress has been suggested as a behavioral response to maintain homeostasis; however, the relationship between thermophysiological cues and the associated response remains unclear. Awareness of an environmental manipulation may influence anticipatory planning before the start of exercise, making it difficult to isolate the dynamic integration of thermophysiological afferents during exercise itself. The purpose of the present study was to examine the direct real-time relationship between thermophysiological afferents and the behavioral response of voluntary exercise intensity.

Participants were tasked with cycling at a constant rating of perceived exertion while ambient temperature (T(a)) was covertly changed from 20 °C to 35 °C and then back to 20 °C at 20-minute intervals. Overall, power output (PO) and heat storage, quantified using repeated measures ANOVA, changed significantly over 20-minute intervals (135 ± 39 W, 133 ± 46 W, 120 ± 45 W; 52.35 ± 36.15 W·m(-2), 66.34 ± 22.02 W·m(-2), -66.53 ± 56.01 W·m(-2)). The synchronicity of PO fluctuations with changes in thermophysiological status was quantified using Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) time series analysis. Fluctuations in PO were not synchronized in real time with changes in T(a); heat storage; rectal, skin, or mean body temperature; or sweat rate (stationary-r(2) ≤ 0.10 and Ljung-Box statistic > 0.05 for all variables).

We conclude that, while the thermal environment affects physiological responses and voluntary power output while cycling at a constant perceived effort, the behavioral response of voluntary exercise intensity did not depend on a direct response to real-time integration of thermal afferent inputs.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22226992/

 

 

Effects of active and passive tobacco cigarette smoking on heart rate variability

FAME Lab - Effects of active and passive tobacco cigarette smoking on heart rate variabilityDinas PC, Koutedakis Y, Flouris AD. Effects of active and passive tobacco cigarette smoking on heart rate variability. Int J Cardiol. 2013 Feb 20;163(2):109-15. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2011.10.140. Epub 2011 Nov 17. PMID: 22100604.

Abstract:

Given the widespread incidence of smoking as well as its deleterious health effects, it is crucial to examine practical and cost effective prognostic markers assessing its health impact. Heart rate variability (HRV) is a straightforward and cost effective technique to foresee health problems of cardiovascular nature and may be used to predict in advance smoking-induced health effects.

In this review we evaluate the existing biological evidence regarding the effects of smoking on HRV and their associated cardiovascular consequences. In addition, we summarize fundamental information on the various HRV indicators and their diagnostic significance in relation to heart failure. An in depth analysis of the various HRV indices characterizing changes in the activation of the autonomic nervous system is provided together with a critical evaluation of all evidence published to date on the influence of chronic and acute active and passive smoking on HRV.

Overall, the vast majority of published evidence suggests that acute and chronic active and passive smoking generate marked disruptions in the normal autonomic nervous system functioning characterized by increased sympathetic drive and reduced HRV and parasympathetic modulation. The proposed mechanisms that may generate this smoke-induced HRV reduction as well as its clinical implications are thoroughly evaluated.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22100604/

 

 

A novel model to predict cutaneous finger blood flow via finger and rectal temperatures

FAME Lab - A novel model to predict cutaneous finger blood flow via finger and rectal temperaturesCarrillo AE, Cheung SS, Flouris AD. A novel model to predict cutaneous finger blood flow via finger and rectal temperatures. Microcirculation. 2011 Nov;18(8):670-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1549-8719.2011.00136.x. PMID: 21951311.

Abstract:

Objectives: To generate a model that predicts fingertip blood flow (BF(f) ) and to cross-validate it in another group of subjects.

Methods: We used fingertip temperature (T(f)), forearm temperature minus T(f) (T(For-f)), rectal temperature (T(re)), and their changes across time ((lag) T) to estimate BF(f). Ten participants (six male, four female) were randomly divided into “model” and “validation” groups. We employed a passive hot-cold water immersion protocol during which each participant’s core temperature increased and decreased by 0.5°C above/below baseline during hot/cold conditions, respectively. A hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis was introduced to generate models using temperature indicators and (lag) T (independent variables) obtained from the model group to predict BF(f) (dependent variable).

Results: Mean BF(f) (109.5 ± 158.2 PU) and predicted BF(f) (P-BF(f)) (111.4 ± 136.7 PU) in the model group calculated using the strongest (R(2) = 0.766, p < 0.001) prediction model [P-BF(f) =T(f) × 19.930 + (lag4) T(f) × 74.766 + (lag4) T(re) × 124.255 – 447.474] were similar (p = 0.6) and correlated (r = 0.880, p < 0.001). Autoregressive integrated moving average time-series analyses demonstrated a significant association between P-BF(f) and BF(f) (R(2) = 0.381; Ljung-Box statistic = 8.097; p < 0.001) in the validation group.

Conclusions: We provide a model that predicts BF(f) via two practical temperature indicators that can be implemented in both clinical and field settings.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21951311/

 

 

Commentaries on viewpoint: expending our physical activity (measurement) budget wisely

Commentaries on viewpoint: expending our physical activity (measurement) budget wiselyManini TM. Commentaries on Viewpoint: Expending our physical activity (measurement) budget wisely. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2011 Aug;111(2):608; discussion 614. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00650.2011. PMID: 21828253; PMCID: PMC6174007.

No abstract available.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21828253/

 

 

Early life mammalian biology and later life physical performance: maximising physiological adaptation

Early life mammalian biology and later life physical performance: maximising physiological adaptationCarrillo AE, Koutedakis Y, Flouris AD. Early life mammalian biology and later life physical performance: maximising physiological adaptation. Br J Sports Med. 2011 Sep;45(12):1000-1. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2011-090198. Epub 2011 Jul 27. PMID: 21798868.

Abstract:

The malleability of mammalian biology during early life, which carries considerable weight throughout the course of the lifespan, may contribute to the creation of a human phenotype ideal for prime physical performance. In this article, the authors consider the East African cohort of exceptional athletes that dominate marathon performance. Since entering international marathon competition in 1960, East Africans have competed at the front of the pack and now hold the top 10 men’s marathon times.

The authors present lines of evidence supporting that exposure to factors such as altitude and early metabolic adjustments that are inherent in East African early life exert a strong influence in later life physical performance and may collide with a genetic advantage to induce biological changes that allow for a more robust biological response to training in later life.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21798868/

 

 

Autonomic nervous system modulation during an archery competition in novice and experienced adolescent archers

FAME Lab - Autonomic nervous system modulation during an archery competition in novice and experienced adolescent archers Carrillo AE, Christodoulou VX, Koutedakis Y, Flouris AD. Autonomic nervous system modulation during an archery competition in novice and experienced adolescent archers. J Sports Sci. 2011 Jun;29(9):913-7. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2011.568514. PMID: 21547837.

Abstract:

We assessed autonomic nervous system modulation through changes in heart rate variability during an archery competition as well as archery performance by comparing novice and experienced adolescent archers. Seven novice (age 14.0 ± 8.5 years, body mass index 22.9 ± 4.3 kg · m(-2), training experience 0.4 ± 0.3 years) and ten experienced archers (age 16.5 ± 10.3 years, body mass index 22.4 ± 3.1 kg · m(-2), training experience 4.1 ± 0.9 years) volunteered. Using beat-by-beat heart rate monitoring, heart rate variability was measured for 20 s before each arrow shot during two rounds of competition.

We found that, compared with novices, experienced adolescent archers: (i) take more time per shot; (ii) have a higher low frequency band, square root of the mean of squared differences between successive R-R intervals (i.e. the time elapsing between two consecutive R waves in the electrocardiogram), and percentage of successive normal-to-normal intervals greater than 50 ms; and (iii) demonstrate an increase in parasympathetic nervous system activity compared with pre-competition values. We propose that these characteristics of experienced archers are appropriate for optimal performance during competition.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21547837/

 

 

Electronic nicotine delivery systems: a research agenda

Tobacco Control - Electronic nicotine delivery systems: a research agendaEtter JF, Bullen C, Flouris AD, Laugesen M, Eissenberg T. Electronic nicotine delivery systems: a research agenda. Tob Control. 2011 May;20(3):243-8. doi: 10.1136/tc.2010.042168. Epub 2011 Mar 17. PMID: 21415064; PMCID: PMC3215262.

Abstract:

Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS, also called electronic cigarettes or e-cigarettes) are marketed to deliver nicotine and sometimes other substances by inhalation. Some tobacco smokers report that they used ENDS as a smoking cessation aid. Whether sold as tobacco products or drug delivery devices, these products need to be regulated, and thus far, across countries and states, there has been a wide range of regulatory responses ranging from no regulation to complete bans.

The empirical basis for these regulatory decisions is uncertain, and more research on ENDS must be conducted in order to ensure that the decisions of regulators, health care providers and consumers are based on science. However, there is a dearth of scientific research on these products, including safety, abuse liability and efficacy for smoking cessation. The authors, who cover a broad range of scientific expertise, from basic science to public health, suggest research priorities for non-clinical, clinical and public health studies.

They conclude that the first priority is to characterize the safety profile of these products, including in long-term users. If these products are demonstrated to be safe, their efficacy as smoking cessation aids should then be tested in appropriately designed trials. Until these studies are conducted, continued marketing constitutes an uncontrolled experiment and the primary outcome measure, poorly assessed, is user health. Potentially, this research effort, contributing to the safety and efficacy of new smoking cessation devices and to the withdrawal of dangerous products, could save many lives.

Full Text Link:

https://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/content/20/3/243

Download PDF:

https://www.famelab.gr/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Electronic-nicotine-delivery-systems-a-research-agenda_2011.pdf

 

 

Immediate and short-term consequences of secondhand smoke exposure on the respiratory system

FAME Lab - Immediate and short-term consequences of secondhand smoke exposure on the respiratory systemFlouris AD, Koutedakis Y. Immediate and short-term consequences of secondhand smoke exposure on the respiratory system. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2011 Mar;17(2):110-5. doi: 10.1097/MCP.0b013e328343165d. PMID: 21178628.

Abstract:

Purpose of review: This review critically evaluates the existing biological evidence regarding the immediate and short-term respiratory consequences of secondhand smoke (SHS).

Recent findings: A 1-h exposure to SHS at bar/restaurant levels generates a marked inflammatory reaction and significant decrements on lung function. These deleterious effects of SHS are exacerbated when physical activity follows the SHS exposure, particularly in less fit individuals. The main respiratory effect mechanisms of SHS include a direct induction of growth factors resulting in airway remodelling and alterations in nitric oxide regulation. Pharmacological agents that increase either apical membrane chloride conductance or basolateral membrane potassium conductance may be of therapeutic benefit in patients with diseases related to SHS exposure. Moreover, treatment with statins has shown beneficial effects towards preventing the SHS-induced pulmonary hypertension, vascular remodelling, and endothelial dysfunction.

Summary: Based on recently discovered evidence, even brief and short-term exposures to SHS generate significant adverse effects on the human respiratory system. Future research directions in this area include the concentrations of tobacco smoke constituents in the alveolar milieu following SHS exposure, individual susceptibility to SHS, as well as pharmacological treatments for reversing the SHS-induced airway remodelling.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21178628/

 

 

The advantage of using differential data in thermal biology

International Journal of Biometeorology - The advantage of using differential data in thermal biology Flouris AD. The advantage of using differential data in thermal biology. Int J Biometeorol. 2012 Mar;56(2):403-4; author reply 405-6. doi: 10.1007/s00484-011-0417-6. Epub 2011 Feb 26. PMID: 21359620.

No abstract available.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21359620/

 

 

Comments on point: counterpoint: humans do/do not demonstrate selective brain cooling during hyperthermia

Crandall CG, Brothers RM,Comments on point: counterpoint: humans do/do not demonstrate selective brain cooling during hyperthermia - Journal of Applied Physiology Zhang R, Brengelmann GL, Covaciu L, Jay O, Cramer MN, Fuller A, Maloney SK, Mitchell D, Romanovsky AA, Caputa M, Nordström CH, Reinstrup P, Nishiyasu T, Fujii N, Hayashi K, Tsuji B, Flouris AD, Cheung SS, Vagula MC, Nelatury CF, Choi JH, Shrivastava D, Gordon CJ, Vaughan JT. Comments on point:counterpoint: humans do/do not demonstrate selective brain cooling during hyperthermia. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2011 Feb;110(2):575-80. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.01375.2010. PMID: 21304015.

No abstract available.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21304015/

 

 

Does adherence to the Mediterranean diet have a protective effect against active and passive smoking?

Does adherence to the Mediterranean diet have a protective effect against active and passive smoking? - Public HealthVardavas CI, Flouris AD, Tsatsakis A, Kafatos AG, Saris WH. Does adherence to the Mediterranean diet have a protective effect against active and passive smoking? Public Health. 2011 Mar;125(3):121-8. doi: 10.1016/j.puhe.2010.11.012. Epub 2011 Jan 28. PMID: 21276993.

Abstract:

Objective: To investigate the existing evidence about whether adherence to the Mediterranean diet may have a role as an effect modifier of active and passive smoking on human health.

Study design: Review.

Methods: An overview of emerging evidence and published studies that cover the interaction between the Mediterranean diet and smoking.

Results: Both epidemiological and laboratory studies have shown that the Mediterranean diet has a protective effect against biochemical and molecular processes that lead to cancer, cardiovascular disease and respiratory illness. Based on the high daily intake of vitamins and antioxidants, the Mediterranean diet is comprised of a number of compounds that could alter certain outcomes related to smoking. Studies have indicated that certain diseases attributable to smoking, such as lung cancer, asthma and cardiovascular disease, are inversely associated with certain antioxidants and lipids.

Conclusions: The literature indicates that the existence of a partial interaction between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and the health effects of smoking is possible. Further research is needed to lead to a conclusive statement on this hypothesis.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21276993/

 

 

Commentaries on viewpoint: the two-hour marathon: who and when?

SCommentaries on viewpoint: the two-hour marathon: who and when? - Journal of Applied Physiologytellingwerff T, Jeukendrup AE. Commentaries on Viewpoint: The two-hour marathon: Who and when? Journal of Applied Physiology (2011), https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.01259.2010

No abstract available.

Full Text Link:

https://journals.physiology.org/doi/full/10.1152/japplphysiol.01259.2010

 

 

Effects of exercise and physical activity on depression

FAME Lab - Effects of exercise and physical activity on depressionDinas PC, Koutedakis Y, Flouris AD. Effects of exercise and physical activity on depression. Ir J Med Sci. 2011 Jun;180(2):319-25. doi: 10.1007/s11845-010-0633-9. Epub 2010 Nov 14. PMID: 21076975.

Abstract:

Introduction: Depression is a very prevalent mental disorder affecting 340 million people globally and is projected to become the leading cause of disability and the second leading contributor to the global burden of disease by the year 2020.

Aim: In this paper, we review the evidence published to date in order to determine whether exercise and physical activity can be used as therapeutic means for acute and chronic depression. Topics covered include the definition, classification criteria and treatment of depression, the link between β-endorphin and exercise, the efficacy of exercise and physical activity as treatments for depression, properties of exercise stimuli used in intervention programs, as well as the efficacy of exercise and physical activity for treating depression in diseased individuals.

Conclusions: The presented evidence suggests that exercise and physical activity have beneficial effects on depression symptoms that are comparable to those of antidepressant treatments.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21076975/

 

 

Thermal basis of finger blood flow adaptations during abrupt perturbations in thermal homeostasis

FAME Lab - Thermal basis of finger blood flow adaptations during abrupt perturbations in thermal homeostasis Flouris AD, Cheung SS. Thermal basis of finger blood flow adaptations during abrupt perturbations in thermal homeostasis. Microcirculation. 2011 Jan;18(1):56-62. doi: 10.1111/j.1549-8719.2010.00068.x. PMID: 21166926.

Abstract:

The objective of this experiment was to assess whether reflex alterations in finger blood flow during repetitive hot and cold water immersion are associated with changes in rectal, tympanic, mean body temperature or heat storage. Fifteen healthy adults (eight males) volunteered.

Following a 15-minute baseline period, participants were immersed in 42°C water and passively rested until their rectal temperature was raised by 0.5°C above baseline. Thereafter, they were immersed in a different water tank maintained at 12°C water temperature until their rectal temperature was decreased by 0.5°C below baseline. This procedure was conducted twice. Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average analysis showed that fluctuations in finger blood flow were associated with changes in mean body temperature (Ljung-Box statistic >0.05; R² = 0.67) and body heat storage (Ljung-Box statistic >0.05; R² = 0.70), but not with rectal (Ljung-Box statistic <0.05; R² = 0.54) or tympanic (Ljung-Box statistic <0.05; R² = 0.49) temperatures.

It is concluded that reflex alterations in finger blood flow during repetitive hot and cold water immersions are associated with mean body temperature and the rate of body heat storage, but not with rectal and tympanic temperatures.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21166926/

 

 

Caloric restriction and longevity: effects of reduced body temperature

FAME Lab - Caloric restriction and longevity: effects of reduced body temperatureCarrillo AE, Flouris AD. Caloric restriction and longevity: effects of reduced body temperature. Ageing Res Rev. 2011 Jan;10(1):153-62. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2010.10.001. Epub 2010 Oct 20. PMID: 20969980.

Abstract:

Caloric restriction (CR) causes a reduction in body temperature (T(b)) which is suggested to contribute to changes that increase lifespan. Moreover, low T(b) has been shown to improve health and longevity independent of CR. In this review we examine the connections between CR, T(b) and mechanisms that influence longevity and ageing.

Recent findings regarding the overlapping mechanisms of CR and T(b) that benefit longevity are discussed, including changes in body composition, hormone regulation, and gene expression, as well as reductions in low-level inflammation and reactive oxygen species-induced molecular damage. This information is summarized in a model describing how CR and low T(b), both synergistically and independently, increase lifespan. Moreover, the nascent notion that the rate of ageing may be pre-programmed in response to environmental influences at critical periods of early development is also considered.

Based on current evidence, it is concluded that low T(b) plays an integral role in mediating the effects of CR on health and longevity, and that low T(b) may exert independent biological changes that increase lifespan. Our understanding of the overlap between CR- and T(b)-mediated longevity remains incomplete and should be explored in future research.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20969980/

 

 

Functional architecture of behavioural thermoregulation

FAME Lab - Functional architecture of behavioural thermoregulation Flouris AD. Functional architecture of behavioural thermoregulation. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2011 Jan;111(1):1-8. doi: 10.1007/s00421-010-1602-8. Epub 2010 Aug 15. PMID: 20711785.

Abstract:

The human thermoregulatory system relies primarily on behavioural adaptation and secondarily on autonomic and endocrine responses for thermal homeostasis. This is because autonomic and endocrine responses have a limited capacity in preventing hyper/hypothermia in extreme environments. Until recently, the neuroanatomy of behavioural thermoregulation as well as the neuroanatomic substrate of the various thermoregulatory behaviours remained largely unknown. However, this situation has changed in recent years as behavioural thermoregulation has become a topic of considerable attention.

The present review evaluates the current knowledge on behavioural thermoregulation in order to summarize the present state-of-the-art and to point towards future research directions. Findings on the fundamental distinction between thermal (dis)comfort and sensation are reviewed showing that the former drives behaviour while the latter initiates autonomic thermoregulation. Moreover, the thermosensitive neurons and thermoeffector functions of behavioural thermoregulation are presented and analysed in a detailed discussion.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20711785/

 

 

Cardiorespiratory and immune response to physical activity following exposure to a typical smoking environment

Cardiorespiratory and immune response to physical activity following exposure to a typical smoking environment - HEART Flouris AD, Metsios GS, Jamurtas AZ, Koutedakis Y. Cardiorespiratory and immune response to physical activity following exposure to a typical smoking environment. Heart. 2010 Jun;96(11):860-4. doi: 10.1136/hrt.2009.190744. Erratum in: Heart. 2011 Oct;97(19):1626. PMID: 20478865.

Abstract:

Objective: Millions of non-smokers suffer daily passive smoking (PS) at home or at work, many of whom then have to walk fast for several minutes or climb a few sets of stairs. We conducted a randomised single-blind crossover experiment to assess the cardiorespiratory and immune response to physical activity following PS.

Design: Data were obtained from 17 (eight women) non-smoking adults during and following 30 minutes of moderate cycling administered at baseline and at 0 hour, 1 hour and 3 hours following a 1-hour PS exposure set at bar/restaurant PS levels.

Results: We found that PS was associated with a 36% and 38.7% decrease in mean power output in men and women, respectively, and that this effect persisted up to 3 hours (p<0.05). Moreover, at 0 hour almost all cardiorespiratory and immune variables measured were markedly reduced (p<0.05). For instance, FEV(1) values at 0 hour dropped by 10.2% in men and 10.8% in women, while IL-5 increased by 59.2% in men and 44% in women, respectively (p<0.05). At 3-hour mean values of respiratory quotient, mean power, perceived exertion, cotinine, FEV(1), IL-5, IL-6 and INFgamma in both sexes, recovery diastolic and mean arterial pressure, IL-4 and TNFalpha in men, as well as percentage predicted FEV(1) in women remained different compared to baseline (p<0.05). Also, some of the PS effects were exacerbated in less fit individuals.

Conclusion: It is concluded that 1 hour of PS at bar/restaurant levels adversely affects the response to moderate physical activity in healthy non-smokers for at least 3 hours following PS.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20478865/

 

 

The validity of tympanic and exhaled breath temperatures for core temperature measurement

FAME Lab - The validity of tympanic and exhaled breath temperatures for core temperature measurementFlouris AD, Cheung SS. The validity of tympanic and exhaled breath temperatures for core temperature measurement. Physiol Meas. 2010 May;31(5):N35-42. doi: 10.1088/0967-3334/31/5/N01. Epub 2010 Mar 26. PMID: 20348612.

Abstract:

We examined the efficacy of tympanic (T(ty)) and exhaled breath (T(X)) temperatures as indices of rectal temperature (T(re)) by applying heat (condition A) and cold (condition B) in a dynamic A-B-A-B sequence. Fifteen healthy adults (8 men; 7 women; 24.9 +/- 4.6 years) volunteered.

Following a 15 min baseline period, participants entered a water tank maintained at 42 degrees C water temperature and passively rested until their T(re) increased by 0.5 degrees C above baseline. Thereafter, they entered a different water tank maintained at 12 degrees C water temperature until their T(re) decreased by 0.5 degrees C below baseline. This procedure was repeated twice (i.e. A-B-A-B). T(ty) demonstrated moderate response delays to the repetitive changes in thermal balance, whereas T(X) and T(re) responded relatively fast. Both T(ty) and T(X) correlated significantly with T(re) (P < 0.05). Linear regression models were used to predict T(re) based on T(ty) and T(X).

The predicted values from both models correlated significantly with T(re) (P < 0.05) and followed the changes in T(re) during the A-B-A-B thermal protocol. While some mean differences with T(re) were observed (P < 0.05), the 95% limits of agreement were acceptable for both models. It is concluded that the calculated models based on tympanic and exhaled breath temperature are valid indicators of core temperature.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20348612/

 

 

Electronic cigarettes: miracle or menace?

Electronic cigarettes: miracle or menace? - BMJ Flouris AD, Oikonomou DN. Electronic cigarettes: miracle or menace? BMJ. 2010 Jan 19;340:c311. doi: 10.1136/bmj.c311. PMID: 20085989.

No abstract available.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20085989/

 

 

On the origins of cold-induced vasodilation

On the origins of cold-induced vasodilation - European Journal of Applied Physiology Flouris AD, Cheung SS. On the origins of cold-induced vasodilation. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2010 Apr;108(6):1281-2. doi: 10.1007/s00421-009-1324-y. Epub 2009 Dec 18. PMID: 20020307.

No abstract available.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20020307/

 

 

Heart rate variability responses to a psychologically challenging scuba dive

Heart rate variability responses to a psychologically challenging scuba dive - Journal of Sports Medicine & Physical Fitness Flouris AD, Scott JM. Heart rate variability responses to a psychologically challenging scuba dive. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2009 Dec;49(4):382-6. PMID: 20087297.

Abstract:

Aim: Given the controversy regarding cardiovascular responses and heart rate variability (HRV) in underwater conditions, the authors assessed the combined effect of psychological stress and scuba diving on cardiac autonomic modulation measured through HRV during and following a diving mission.

Methods: Ten healthy adults (three females; seven males; Body Mass Index [BMI] 23.7 + or – 2.1; age 26.4 + or – 2.9) performed a 20-minute dive in a neutral buoyancy water tank (27 degrees C) at a depth of five meters. The dive scenario involved repairing components of a scientific instrument using a high fidelity task mock-up. Data for HRV (three from the time domain and three from the frequency domain) were obtained for 20 minutes prior to (PRE), during (DIVE), and for 20 minutes following (POST) the dive sortie.

Results: Heart rate in DIVE was increased when compared to PRE and POST (74 + or – 10 vs. 108 + or – 16 vs. 72 + or – 8 beats x min(-1), respectively). The time domain measure pNN50 (37.3 + or – 16.9 vs. 14.1 + or – 10.1 vs. 22.0 + or – 12.2%, respectively), and the R-R interval (0.72 + or – 0.26 vs. 0.59 + or – 0.11, vs. 0.86 + or – 0.24, respectively) showed a significant decrease in DIVE compared to PRE and POST, while no changes were detected in the frequency domain indices between measurements. During POST, the square root of the mean of squared differences between successive intervals returned to PRE levels, but pNN50 values remained decreased at DIVE levels.

Conclusions: These findings suggest a decrease in parasympathetic indices during a psychologically challenging scuba dive and a delay in vagal reactivation during the 20-minute period following the dive.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20087297/

 

 

Epidemiological evidence associating secondhand smoke exposure with cardiovascular disease

Epidemiological evidence associating secondhand smoke exposure with cardiovascular disease - Inflammation & Allergy – Drug Targets Faught BE, Flouris AD, Cairney J. Epidemiological evidence associating secondhand smoke exposure with cardiovascular disease. Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets. 2009 Dec;8(5):321-7. doi: 10.2174/1871528110908050321. PMID: 20025577.

Abstract:

The objective of this paper was to review the epidemiological literature examining the association between secondhand smoke (SHS) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Specifically, we examined the various screening methods available in assessing smoking behaviour and quantifying nicotine absorption. Further, we considered the natural history of those exposed to SHS and the associated risk of CVD.

We reviewed routine methods used to assess exposure to SHS; evaluated the utility of subjective screening questions regarding smoking behaviour and examined the efficacy of nicotine and cotinine biomarkers used to quantify SHS exposure in epidemiological and clinical-based research. Self-reporting is practical and cost-effective in identifying smoking behaviour patterns, but is subject to recall bias and underestimation of exposure, especially in the presence of children. Nicotine and cotinine biomarkers have proven valuable in quantifying tobacco smoke absorption and establishing biological plausibility. A combination of SHS self-reported and biomarker evaluation provide the most stringent method of establishing exposure.

Sufficient evidence is reported in epidemiological research to support a causal association between SHS exposure and increased risks of CVD morbidity and mortality among both men and women. The risk of developing an acute cardiac syndrome or chronic lifetime coronary events is at least 30%. Similarly, reduction in the incidence of a myocardial infarction decreases by nearly 50% in the absence of SHS. Considering the biological plausibility and dose-response relationship between SHS and CVD, effective interventions that incorporate a comprehensive screening method of behavioral and biological measures of exposure coupled with efficacious treatment should elicit favorable change for at-risk populations.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20025577/

 

 

Effects of secondhand smoke on thyroid function

Effects of secondhand smoke on thyroid function - Inflammation & Allergy – Drug TargetsCarrillo AE, Metsios GS, Flouris AD. Effects of secondhand smoke on thyroid function. Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets. 2009 Dec;8(5):359-63. doi: 10.2174/1871528110908050359. PMID: 20025583.

Abstract:

Growing evidence suggests that the effects of second hand smoke (SHS) exposure contribute to disruptions in thyroid function. Toxic elements contained in cigarette smoke, such as thiocyanate, may be partially responsible for impaired thyroid hormonogenesis. SHS-induced inflammatory stress, namely interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta), impairs thyroid hormonogenesis and iodine uptake; initiates interleukin 6 (IL-6) production from thyroid epithelial cells and stimulates the expression of molecules that exacerbate thyroid autoimmunity.

The link between SHS exposure and thyroid autoimmune disease is not well documented and thus, remains to be fully understood. Elevated inflammatory stress and thyroid hormone secretion in response to SHS exposure initiates catabolic processes that alter body composition via lean body mass breakdown; translating to an elevation in resting energy expenditure of approximately 10%. The combination of certain biological factors, such as sex and/or existing thyroid disease may stimulate differential SHS-induced effects on thyroid function. Nevertheless, exposure to SHS disturbs vital human processes via thyroid disruption.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20025583/

 

 

Passive smoking, asthma and allergy in children

Passive smoking, asthma and allergy in children - Inflammation & Allergy – Drug Targets Metsios GS, Flouris AD, Koutedakis Y. Passive smoking, asthma and allergy in children. Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets. 2009 Dec;8(5):348-52. doi: 10.2174/1871528110908050348. PMID: 20025581.

Abstract:

Despite the recent campaigns to eliminate smoking and hinder the detrimental effects of passive smoking (PS), actual smoking rates still increase worldwide. Several physiological systems, with the respiratory being the primary, are disrupted by PS and progressively deteriorate through chronic exposures. This is of particular importance in children, given that respiratory complications during childhood can be transferred to adulthood, lead to significantly inferior health profiles.

Hence, it is no surprise that children that are exposed to PS either in utero or during their adulthood may have an increased prevalence of allergies and asthma. However, investigating the acute effects of PS in children is inherently limited by complexities pertaining mainly to ethical constrains. Knowledge of the acute effects could be very important as it is the dose-dependant acute effects of passive smoking that lead to the long-term adaptations linked with the development of allergy and asthma.

Current available data show that the chemical and carcinogenic constituents of tobacco have profound effects on children’s health as they may disrupt normal biological development. PS appears to have pronounced effects on respiratory parameters that promote asthma development and persistent wheezing rather than other allergies. As such, PS exposure has to be eliminated and researchers have to develop interventions for supporting smoking cessation as well as minimised PS exposure either this is in utero or during childhood.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20025581/

 

 

Thermometry and calorimetry assessment of sweat response during exercise in the heat

FAME Lab - Thermometry and calorimetry assessment of sweat response during exercise in the heatFlouris AD, Cheung SS. Thermometry and calorimetry assessment of sweat response during exercise in the heat. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2010 Mar;108(5):905-11. doi: 10.1007/s00421-009-1302-4. Epub 2009 Nov 27. PMID: 19943059.

Abstract:

Our objective was to characterise sweat rate responses in a hot environment during rest and subsequent increasing levels of exercise in relation to thermometrically (i.e., rectal, tympanic, mean skin and mean body temperatures) and calorimetrically derived (i.e., change in body heat storage) thermal parameters.

Ten healthy males volunteered and entered an environmental chamber set at 42 degrees C. Participants rested seated during their first hour inside the chamber. Thereafter, they exercised to volitional exhaustion on a cycle ergometer at 20 W with step increments of 20 W h(-1). Across time, fluctuations in sweat rate were systematically associated with similar fluctuations in the integral of body heat storage (t = 13.16, P < 0.001), but not rectal (t = 0.98, P > 0.05), tympanic (t = 0.81, P > 0.05), mean skin (t = 0.12, P > 0.05), or mean body (t = 0.93, P > 0.05) temperatures. In addition, 95% limits of agreement and regression analyses showed that the changes in sweat rate demonstrated the highest agreement and strongest associations with changes in the integral of body heat storage.

It is concluded that in a hot environment during rest and subsequent increasing levels of exercise sweat rate is associated with the cumulative changes in the rate of body heat storage.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19943059/

 

 

Biological evidence for the acute health effects of secondhand smoke exposure

FAME Lab - Biological evidence for the acute health effects of secondhand smoke exposure Flouris AD, Vardavas CI, Metsios GS, Tsatsakis AM, Koutedakis Y. Biological evidence for the acute health effects of secondhand smoke exposure. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2010 Jan;298(1):L3-L12. doi: 10.1152/ajplung.00215.2009. Epub 2009 Sep 18. PMID: 19767410.

Abstract:

A vast number of studies on the unfavorable effects of secondhand smoke (SHS) exist within the international literature, the majority of which evaluate longitudinal epidemiological data. Although limited, the experimental studies that assess the acute and short-term effects of exposure to SHS are also increasing in number. They include cellular, animal, and human studies that indicate a number of pathophysiological mechanisms through which the deleterious effects of SHS may arise.

This current review evaluates the existing biological evidence regarding the acute health effects of SHS exposure. Analyses on the inhaled toxicants and the carcinogenicity of SHS are included as well as in-depth discussions on the evidence for acute SHS-induced respiratory, cardiovascular, metabolic, endocrine and immune effects, and SHS-induced influences on oxygen delivery and exercise. The influence of the length of exposure and the duration of the observed effects is also described. Moreover, recent findings regarding the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms related to SHS are depicted so as to generate models that describe the SHS-induced effects on different systems within the human body.

Based on the presented biological evidence, it is concluded that brief, acute, transient exposures to SHS may cause significant adverse effects on several systems of the human body and represent a significant and acute health hazard. Future research directions in this area include research on the concentrations of tobacco smoke constituents in the alveolar milieu following SHS exposure, individual susceptibility to SHS, as well as the effects of SHS on neurobehavioral activity, brain cell development, synaptic development, and function.

Full Text Link:

https://journals.physiology.org/doi/full/10.1152/ajplung.00215.2009

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Prediction of VO2max from a new field test based on portable indirect calorimetry

FAME Lab - Prediction of VO2max from a new field test based on portable indirect calorimetryFlouris AD, Metsios GS, Famisis K, Geladas N, Koutedakis Y. Prediction of VO2max from a new field test based on portable indirect calorimetry. J Sci Med Sport. 2010 Jan;13(1):70-3. doi: 10.1016/j.jsams.2009.04.002. Epub 2009 Jun 27. PMID: 19560968.

Abstract:

We assessed the validity and reliability of the new 15m square shuttle run test (SST) for predicting laboratory treadmill test (TT) maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2 max)) compared to the 20 m multistage shuttle run test (MST) in 45 adult males. Thirty participants performed a TT and a SST once to develop a VO( 2max) prediction model. The remaining 15 participants performed the TT and MST once and the SST twice for cross-validation purposes. Throughout testing V O(2max) was determined via portable indirect calorimetry while blood lactate concentration was assessed at the fifth recovery minute.

Comparisons of TT V O(2 max) (51.3+/-3.1 ml kg(-1)min(-1)) with SST measured (51.2+/-3.2 ml kg(-1)min(-1)) and predicted (50.9+/-3.3 ml kg(-1)min(-1)) V O(2 max) showed no differences while TT blood lactate was higher compared to SST (10.3+/-1.7 mmol vs. 9.7+/-1.7 mmol, respectively). In contrast, MST measured (53.4+/-3.5 ml kg(-1)min(-1)) and predicted (57.0+/-4.5 ml kg(-1)min(-1)) V O(2 max) and blood lactate (11.2+/-2.0 mmol) were significantly higher compared to TT. No test-retest differences were detected for SST measured and predicted V O(2 max) and blood lactate. It is concluded that the SST is a highly valid and reliable predictive test for V O(2 max).

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19560968/

 

 

Authors’ response to H. Daanen’s ‘Cold-induced vasodilation’ letter

Authors' response to H. Daanen's 'Cold-induced vasodilation' letter - European Journal of Applied Physiology Flouris AD, Cheung SS. Authors’ response to H. Daanen’s ‘Cold-induced vasodilation’ letter. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2009 May;106(2):317-9. doi: 10.1007/s00421-009-1039-0. Epub 2009 Mar 21. PMID: 19306015.

No abstract available.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19306015/

 

 

Acute and short-term effects of secondhand smoke on lung function and cytokine production

FAME Lab - Acute and short-term effects of secondhand smoke on lung function and cytokine production Flouris AD, Metsios GS, Carrillo AE, Jamurtas AZ, Gourgoulianis K, Kiropoulos T, Tzatzarakis MN, Tsatsakis AM, Koutedakis Y. Acute and short-term effects of secondhand smoke on lung function and cytokine production. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2009 Jun 1;179(11):1029-33. doi: 10.1164/rccm.200812-1920OC. Epub 2009 Mar 5. PMID: 19264972.

Abstract:

Rationale: The acute effect of secondhand smoke (SHS) on lung function and the duration of system disruption remain unknown.

Objectives: To assess the SHS effects and their duration on lung function and inflammatory markers.

Methods: In a randomized single-blind crossover experiment data were obtained from 16 (8 women) nonsmoking adults at baseline and at 0, 1, and 3 hours after a 1-hour SHS exposure set at bar/restaurant SHS levels. Measurements and main results: Serum and urine cotinine, lung function, and cytokines IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and IFN-gamma. At 0 hours most lung function parameters were significantly reduced (indicative: FEV(1), 4.3 +/- 0.4 vs. 3.8 +/- 0.3 L; FEV(1)/FVC, 0.9 +/- 0.1 vs. 0.8 +/- 0.1; P < 0.05) but at 3 hours they were at baseline levels. In contrast, cotinine (serum, 8.9 +/- 3.2 vs. 35.5 +/- 10.2 ng x ml(-1)), IL-4 (41.3 +/- 5.8 vs. 44.2 +/- 4.5 pg x ml(-1)), IL-5 (36.1 +/- 3.2 vs. 60.1 +/- 7.0 pg x ml(-1)), IL-6 (2.5 +/- 0.3 vs. 7.6 +/- 1.4 pg x ml(-1)) and IFN-gamma (0.3 +/- 0.2 vs. 0.6 +/- 0.2 IU x ml(-1)) at 3 hours were higher than at baseline (P < 0.05). IL-4 and TNF-alpha increased only in men, whereas IL-5, IL-6, and IFN-gamma were different between sexes after exposure (P < 0.05). Regression analyses revealed inverse associations of FEV(1) and FEV(1)/FVC ratio with IL-5 (P < 0.05) in men and with IL-5 (P = 0.01), IL-6 (P < 0.001), IFN-gamma (P = 0.034) and serum cotinine (P < 0.001) in women.

Conclusions: We conclude that 1 hour of SHS exposure at bar/restaurant levels is accompanied by significant decrements on lung function and marked increases in inflammatory cytokines, particularly in men. More importantly, whereas most smoke-induced effects on lung function appear to recede within 60 minutes, inflammatory cytokines remain elevated for at least 3 hours after exposure to SHS.

Full Text Link:

https://www.atsjournals.org/doi/full/10.1164/rccm.200812-1920OC

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https://www.famelab.gr/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Acute-and-Short-term-Effects-of-Secondhand-Smoke-on-Lung-Function-and-Cytokine-Production_2009.pdf

 

 

Influence of thermal balance on cold-induced vasodilation

FAME Lab - Influence of thermal balance on cold-induced vasodilationFlouris AD, Cheung SS. Influence of thermal balance on cold-induced vasodilation. Journal of Applied Physiology (2009). https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.91426.2008.

Abstract:

We examined the effect of thermal balance perturbation on cold-induced vasodilation through a dynamic A-B-A-B design applying heat (condition A) and cold (condition B) to the body’s core, while the hand is exposed to a stable cold stimulus. Fifteen healthy adults (8 men, 7 women) volunteered. Applications of heat and cold were achieved through water immersions in two tanks maintained at 42 and 12 degrees C water temperature, respectively, in an A-B-A-B fashion. Throughout the experiment, the participants’ right hand up to the ulnar styloid process was placed inside a temperature-controlled box set at 0 degrees C air temperature.

Results demonstrated that cold-induced vasodilation occurred only during condition B and at times when body heat content was decreasing but rectal temperature had not yet dropped to baseline levels. Following the occurrence of all cold-induced vasodilation events, rectal temperature was reduced, and the phenomenon ceased when rectal temperature fell below baseline. Heart rate variability data obtained before and during cold-induced vasodilation demonstrated a shift of autonomic interaction toward parasympathetic dominance, which, however, was attributed to a sympathetic withdrawal. Receiver operating characteristics curve analyses demonstrated that the cold-induced vasodilation onset cutoff points for rectal temperature change and finger temperature were 0.62 and 16.76 degrees C, respectively.

It is concluded that cold-induced vasodilation is a centrally originating phenomenon caused by sympathetic vasoconstrictor withdrawal. It is dependent on excess heat, and it may be triggered by excess heat with the purpose of preserving thermal balance.

Full Text Link:

https://journals.physiology.org/doi/full/10.1152/japplphysiol.91426.2008

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https://www.famelab.gr/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/Influence-of-thermal-balance-on-cold-induced-vasodilation_2009.pdf

 

 

Effect of seasonal programming on fetal development and longevity: links with environmental temperature

FAME Lab - Effect of seasonal programming on fetal development and longevity: links with environmental temperatureFlouris AD, Spiropoulos Y, Sakellariou GJ, Koutedakis Y. Effect of seasonal programming on fetal development and longevity: links with environmental temperature. Am J Hum Biol. 2009 Mar-Apr;21(2):214-6. doi: 10.1002/ajhb.20818. PMID: 19194861.

Abstract:

This study examined the effect of birth season on fetal development and longevity using two independent databases of all Greek citizens that were born (total: 516,874) or died (total: 554,101) between 1999 and 2003. We found significantly increased birth weight, gestational age, and longevity in individuals born during the autumn and winter seasons of the year. These individuals also demonstrated statistically significantly lower prevalence rates for fetal growth restriction and premature birth. Furthermore, we found that increased temperature at birth was associated with adverse effects on fetal development and longevity. In conclusion, our results show strong effects of season of birth on fetal development and longevity mediated, at least in part, by environmental temperature at time of birth.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19194861/

 

 

Human conscious response to thermal input is adjusted to changes in mean body temperature

FAME Lab - Human conscious response to thermal input is adjusted to changes in mean body temperatureFlouris AD, Cheung SS. Human conscious response to thermal input is adjusted to changes in mean body temperature. Br J Sports Med. 2009 Mar;43(3):199-203. doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2007.044552. Epub 2008 Jan 23. PMID: 18216157.

Abstract:

Objective and design: To detect the dependable criteria of behavioural thermoregulation through modelling temperature fluctuations of individuals allowed to freely manipulate inlet water temperature of a liquid conditioning garment (LCG) during 130 min of passive exposure to -20 degrees C interspersed with a 10 min period of moderate exercise at the 65th minute using a double-blind experiment.

Participants: Eleven volunteers (5 women; 23.40 (SD 2.09) years; BMI: 23.24 (SD 2.19)) who lacked previous experience with LCG and cold exposure experiments.

Results: Despite variations in core and skin temperatures, thermal comfort, thermal sensation, and mean body temperature did not fluctuate significantly over time. Participants were able to find a desired level of LCG inlet temperature within 25 minutes which was maintained at similar levels until the 65th minute of the cold exposure. During exercise, LCG inlet water temperature decreased significantly. Regression models demonstrated that mean skin temperature and change in mean body temperature were significantly associated with thermal comfort and thermal sensation. Subsequent models revealed that, although all temperature variables were associated with LCG inlet water temperature, the coefficient of determination mainly depended on mean skin temperature and change in mean body temperature. The involvement of skin temperature was anticipated as the liquid conditioning garment was in contact with the skin.

Conclusions: Humans generate conscious thermoregulatory responses in resting and exercise conditions during exposures to cold environments that are aimed towards maintaining a threshold mean body temperature, rather than temperature changes in individual body regions.

Full Text Link:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18216157/